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Musculoskeletal Pain Among E-sport Athletes

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03910517
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 10, 2019
Last Update Posted : July 9, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Christian Lund Straszek, University College of Northern Denmark

Brief Summary:

Background:

Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain and injuries are common in endurance sports where athletes are required to perform at high intensity for long periods of time. In the short term, MSK pain may significantly impair the athletes' performance, which can lead to unwanted time-off from practice and competitive tournaments. Previous studies found an association between training load, MSK pain and performance. These results indicate that an athlete may experience MSK pain or get injured from both too low and to high training loads.

Electronic sports (E-sports), also known as competitive gaming, is defined by Hamari and Sjöblom as "a form of sports where the primary aspects of the sport is facilitated by electronic systems; the input of players and teams as well as the output of the E-sports system are mediated by human-computer interference".

There are only few data on MSK pain in E-sports, however a small study with 65 participants found that 41% suffered from back or neck pain and more than 1 in 3 had pain related to the wrist. E-sports athletes have to perform for an extended period of time, similar to athletes from traditional endurance sport. As such, MSK pain in E-sports may be associated with training load like it is seen in other sports. Therefore, MSK pain in E-sports could be an unrecognised issue. To provide health professionals with and optimal starting point for managing these issues, there is a need for well-conducted studies on the prevalence of MSK pain among E-sports athletes. In addition, it is highly relevant to investigate if training loads related to E-sports and physical activity levels are different among athletes with MSK pain compared to athletes without MSK pain.

Aims:

The aims of this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study are to; I) investigate the prevalence of MSK pain in E-sports athletes, II) assess if training loads among athletes with MSK pain are different from athletes without MSK pain, III) investigate if physical activity levels among athletes with MSK pain are different from athletes without MSK pain and IIII) descriptively present data on participant characteristics, sleep patterns, physical activity levels and utilization of health professionals and pain medication in the study population.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Musculoskeletal Pain Other: No intervention

Detailed Description:

Data analysis:

The prevalence of MSK pain within the study population will be presented in absolute numbers and as percentage values. To investigate if E-sport related training loads differ among athletes with and without MSK pain we will use total E-sport related training load (N hours spend on structured E-sport + N hours spend on unstructured E-sport). An independent sample t-test will be applied for this comparison if data are normally distributed. To assess if physical activity levels are different among athletes with and without MSK pain we will use the responses from the IPAQ short form. For this comparison we will use an independent sample t-test or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Participant characteristics, distribution and number of MSK pain sites, utilization of health professionals and pain medicine, physical activity levels, training loads and sleep patterns will be presented descriptively. The data will be presented with means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals. Non-parametric data will be presented with absolute numbers and as percentage values, medians and range.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 208 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Musculoskeletal Pain Among E-sport Athletes
Actual Study Start Date : March 27, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 26, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : April 26, 2019

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
E-sport athletes
People aged 15-35 who engage in structured E-sport (e.g. community-based, pro team or educational setting).
Other: No intervention
No intervention




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Prevalence of pain in the body during the previous week. [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they have experienced any pain in their body during the previous week (yes/no).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Primary pain site: questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked where in the body they experience their primary pain complaint (list: head, chest, stomach, back, neck, shoulder, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand/fingers, hip/groin, thigh, knee, shinbone, ankle, and foot/toes).

  2. Other pain sites: questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they experience pain at additional sites (List: head, chest, stomach, back, neck. Also shoulder, upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand/fingers, hip/groin, thigh, knee, shinbone, ankle, and foot/toes with the response categories being right, left or both).

  3. Pain frequency [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Responses are presented on a 5-point Likert scale: daily, weekly, several times per week, monthly, rarely

  4. Pain intensity: numeric pain rating scale [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked about worst pain during the previous week in relation to their primary pain site. Pain intensity is assessed with a 0 to 10 point numeric pain rating scale (0=no pain; 10= worst possible pain)

  5. Pain interference [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if their pain interference with their participation in E-sport (yes/no).

  6. Eye fatigue [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they experience eye fatigue related to E-sport (yes/no).

  7. Training load (structured E-sport) [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked about the number of hours they spend on structured E-sport where there is a coach present.

  8. Training load (unstructured E-sport) [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked about the number of hours they spend on unstructured E-sport without a coach present.

  9. Physical activity levels [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]

    International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form (7 item questionnaire).

    This questionnaire assess the number of days per week spent on vigorous and moderate physical activity, walking and sitting. The questionnaire also assess the amount of time per day (hours/minutes) spent on these activities.


  10. Hours of sleep [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked about how many hours they sleep on average during a night.

  11. Trouble falling a sleep [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they have trouble falling a sleep at night (Not at all, some nights, most nights, don't know)

  12. Waking up several times at night [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they wake up several times at night (Not at all, some nights, most nights, don't know)

  13. Trouble sleeping through the night [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they have trouble sleeping all through the night (Not at all, some nights, most nights, don't know)

  14. Tiered in the morning. [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they feel tiered in the morning (Not at all, some mornings, most mornings, don't know)


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Use of pain medicine [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they use pain medicine (yes/no)

  2. Use of pain medicine - type [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked which type of pain medicine they use

  3. Use of pain medicine - frequency [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked how frequent they use pain medicine (Several times per day, one time per day, one time per week, one time per month, rarely, don't know)

  4. Reason for using pain medicine [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Self-reported reason for using pain medicine

  5. Health-care utilization [ Time Frame: Baseline - at time of inclusion ]
    Participants are asked if they have sought treatment for pain from a healthcare professional during the past 3 month.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years to 35 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
People aged 15-35 who engage in E-sport at an educational institution, a community-based team or a pro-team in Denmark.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 15-35
  • Engaged in E-sport at an educational institution, a community-based team or a pro-team.
  • Participating in E-sport through a computer-based game.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not providing written informed consent prior to enrolment.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03910517


Locations
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Denmark
E-Sport clubs and/or team based in the community, at an educational institution or in a private organization i Denmark
Aalborg, Denmark, 9000
Sponsors and Collaborators
University College of Northern Denmark
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Christian Lund Straszek, University College of Northern Denmark:
Publications:
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Responsible Party: Christian Lund Straszek, Assistant lecturer, University College of Northern Denmark
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03910517    
Other Study ID Numbers: Project E-sport
First Posted: April 10, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 9, 2019
Last Verified: May 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Christian Lund Straszek, University College of Northern Denmark:
Musculoskeletal Pain
Sleep
Training load
E-sport
Physical activity
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Musculoskeletal Pain
Muscular Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Pain
Neurologic Manifestations