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Role of Virtual Reality (VR) in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03387033
Recruitment Status : Terminated (enrollment closed due to lack of funding)
First Posted : December 29, 2017
Results First Posted : March 1, 2021
Last Update Posted : March 1, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Duke University

Brief Summary:
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and cancer often have complicated courses while hospitalized and often deal with pain, anxiety and depression. Advances in the field of technology provide potential avenues for innovative and improved care models for our patients. Virtual reality (VR) has been recently utilized to improve anxiety and pain in a variety of patient populations including children undergoing elective surgery and children experiencing intravenous cannulation in the Emergency Department. Patients with SCD and cancer, both adults and children, are a group of patients that can benefit from VR as part of their care. Over the past four years, our team has successfully implemented several self-developed mobile applications ("apps") for our patients, in addition to integrating objective data (heart rate, activity, stress) from wearable activity trackers. The investigators now propose implementing a feasibility study followed by a pilot study and randomized-controlled trial of the use of VR in patients with SCD and cancer. The investigators plan to assess pain and anxiety prior to the session as well as following the session in hospitalized patients and outpatients with SCD and cancer. The sessions will include a ten-minute relaxation response introductory narrative segment (deep breathing and mindfulness) followed by a ten-minute narrated and immersive VR. Heart rate will be tracked using an Apple iWatch for 30 minutes prior to the session, during the session, and following the session. We anticipate VR will not only be a feasible method to provide non-pharmacologic treatment, but will also significantly reduce pain and anxiety.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Sickle Cell Disease Virtual Reality Anxiety Depression Cancer Device: Relaxation response and virtual reality (VR) session Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The investigators will perform a feasibility and pilot study evaluating relaxation response (narration leading through deep-breathing, mindfulness, and other relaxation techniques) followed by VR in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and caner. The VR headset (NeuTab VR Virtual Reality Headset, Dynamic Virtual Viewer, or similar device) used will be compatible with an iPhone purchased by the PI. The VR session will be narrated by Jon Seskevich, RN. Patients will be provided with a second iPhone to play the recording while the other iPhone is used to display the VR session.

The patients will first be provided a consent form and consented. They will have the opportunity to ask questions prior to and following consent. They will subsequently give a pain score and fill out a GAD-7 (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) and PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire) form. They will be taught how to use the VR headset. Patients will listen to a recording by Jon Seskevich, RN of a ten-minute relaxation response. An iPhone will then be placed in the VR headset, the recording started, and the headset placed on the patient. The VR scene is available through Provata VR app and has been previously chosen prior to the start of the study. Following this, patients will again give a pain score as well as complete another GAD-7, PHQ-9, Presence Questionnaire, and Patient's Global Impression of Change (PGIC) form. Patients will be asked to fill out pain score and general health questions via the TRU-Pain app. Patients will then be able to ask questions/provide further feedback.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 20 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Role of Virtual Reality (VR) in Decreasing Pain and Anxiety in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)
Actual Study Start Date : February 5, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 25, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : April 25, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Anxiety

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: VR intervention session
The patients will give a pain score as well as fill out GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores initially. The VR intervention session consists of relaxation narration WITH Virtual Reality session for 20 minutes while wearing the VR device. They will then be again asked to give a pain score and fill out GAD-7, PHQ-9, and PGIC.
Device: Relaxation response and virtual reality (VR) session
A 10-minute relaxation response (mindfulness and deep breathing) followed by 10-minute immersive VR session.
Other Names:
  • NeuTab VR Headset
  • Mindfulness
  • Deep breathing
  • Dynamic Virtual Viewer

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Feasibility of VR Session as Measured by Patient Satisfaction Survey. [ Time Frame: Day 1 ]
    Patient satisfaction with session measured on a Likert-type scale with the following options: Very unsatisfied, unsatisfied, not unsatisfied or satisfied, satisfied, very satisfied. Participants were also asked if they agree with the statement that the 'VR device was helpful'.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Pain Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, up to 30 mins ]
    Change in pain score as measured by visual analog pain score (0-10), where 0 = no pain and 10 = worst pain.

  2. Change in Anxiety-related Symptoms as Measured by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, up to 30 mins ]
    GAD-7 total score for the seven items ranges from 0 to 21, calculated by assigning scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 to the response categories, respectively, of "not at all," "several days," "more than half the days," and "nearly every day." A total score of 0-4 = minimal anxiety, 5-9 = mild anxiety, 10-14 = moderate anxiety, 15-21 = severe anxiety. A negative score change indicates a decrease in anxiety symptoms and a positive score change indicates an increase in anxiety symptoms.

  3. Change in Depressive Symptoms as Measured by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, up to 30 mins ]
    The PHQ-9 has a total range of 0-27, where 0 = No depression, 1-4 = Minimal depression, 5-9 = Mild depression, 10-14 = Moderate depression, 15-19 = Moderately severe depression, 20-27 = Severe depression. A negative score change indicates a decrease in depressive symptoms and a positive score change indicates an increase in depressive symptoms.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   8 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • These patients must have a diagnosis of chronic or acute pain (current pain or baseline pain score >0) AND
  • These patients must have anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured by the GAD-7 or PHQ-9 questionnaires

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients <8 years old

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03387033

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United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Sponsors and Collaborators
Duke University
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Principal Investigator: Nirmish Shah, MD Duke University
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Duke University:
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Duke University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03387033    
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00082388
First Posted: December 29, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 1, 2021
Last Update Posted: March 1, 2021
Last Verified: February 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Plan Description: Currently have collaborators at Pitt interested and may expand study pending feasibility and pilot study results.

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Anemia, Sickle Cell
Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital
Anemia, Hemolytic
Hematologic Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn