Evaluation of Tofacitinib in Early Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (dcSSc) (TOFA-SSc)
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This Phase I/II placebo controlled trial will evaluate tofacitinib in subjects with diffuse cutaneous systemic scleroderma (dcSSc). This trial is intended to provide safety, and tolerability data in participants with dcSSc when dosed to target exposures similar to that used in adult participants with rheumatoid arthritis.
Condition or disease
Drug: TofacitinibDrug: Placebo Oral Tablet
Phase 1Phase 2
The purpose of this clinical research study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of treatment with tofacitinib (study drug) versus placebo (a substance with no active ingredients and therefore may have no treatment benefit) in people with diffuse cutaneous systemic scleroderma. Subjects will be randomized to tofacitinib vs. placebo in a 2:1 ratio at 5 mg twice a day for 24 weeks. Subjects will then be offered to participate in an open label phase during which they will receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice a day for 24 weeks.
Number of Participants Who Experience Grade 3 or Higher Adverse Events That Occur at or Before Week 24 [ Time Frame: 24 weeks ]
Primary outcome is met if any participants experience a grade 3 or higher event prior to Week 24. A grade 3 AE would constitute as "severe". Grading was following using CTCAE v 4.03.
Note that the planned statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) could not be performed because there were no events.
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Number of Grade 3 (Severe) or Higher Adverse Events That Occur Throughout the Study [ Time Frame: Week 12, 24, 36, and 48 ]
Grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs) assessed throughout the study ( 48 weeks). A grade 3 AE would constitute as "severe". Grading was following using CTCAE v 4.03.
Note that the planned statistical analysis (calculation of rate ratio and 90% CI) could not be performed at Weeks 12 and 24 due to no events, and could not be performed at Week 36 because there were no events in the placebo group (denominator).
Number of Grade 2 (Moderate) or Higher Adverse Events That Occur Throughout the Study [ Time Frame: Week: 12, 24, 36, and 48 ]
Grade 2 or higher assessed 12 weeks apart. Grade 2 AEs are determined as " moderate". Grading was performed following CTCAE v 4.03 guidance.
Number of Adverse Events of Special Interest (AESI) Throughout the Study [ Time Frame: Weeks 12, 24, 36 and 48 ]
AESI are pre-defined adverse events as indicated in the protocol. They include: infections, stomach perforations, malignancy, herpes zoster and lab abnormalities.
Note that the planned statistical analysis (calculation of rate ratio and 90% CI) could not be performed at Weeks 12 and 24 because there were no events in placebo group (denominator).
Change in Modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline at weeks: 12, 24, 36, and 48 ]
The Modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) is a measure of skin thickness. Skin thickness in 17 anatomic areas was rated on a 0-3 scale and scores are summed to obtain the mRSS (range from 0 - 51), with higher mRSS scores indicating worse disease activity
Provisional American College of Rheumatology Combined Response Index (CRISS) Systemic Sclerosis [ Time Frame: Week:12, 24, and 48 ]
CRISS components included the following domains: modified Rodnan skin score, forced vital capacity percent predicted, Physician Global Assessment, Patient Global Assessment, and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index. An algorithm determines the predicted probability of improvement from baseline by incorporating change in the mRSS, FVC percent predicted, Physician and Patient Global Assessments, and HAQ-DI. The outcome is a continuous variable between 0.0 and 1.0 (0 - 100%). A cut-off at 0.6 in the predicted probability of being improved has yielded the smallest misclassification error. Subjects are not considered improved if, between Visit 1 and 6, they develop new: 1) renal crisis; 2) decline in FVC% predicted by 15% (relative) from baseline and confirmed after 1 month; or 3) left ventricular failure (systolic ejection fraction < 45%) or pulmonary artery hypertension. Higher CRISS scores indicates improvement.
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years to 70 Years (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), as classified using the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/ European Union League Against Rheumatism classification of SSc.
Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (dcSSc) as defined by 2001 LeRoy and Medsger
Disease duration ≤ 60 months (defined as time from the first non-Raynaud phenomenon manifestation)
Modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) units ≥ 10 and ≤ 45 at screening.
Agreement to receive varicella-zoster vaccination (Zostavax®) or have received vaccination prior to screening.
Oral corticosteroids (≤ 10 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent) are permitted if the patient is on a stable dose regimen for ≥ 2 weeks prior to and including the baseline visit.
Ability to provide informed consent.
Rheumatic disease other than dcSSc; it is acceptable to include patients with fibromyalgia, Sjogren syndrome, and scleroderma-associated myopathy
Limited cutaneous SSc or sine scleroderma
Major surgery (including joint surgery) within 8 weeks prior to baseline.
Any infected ulcer at screening
Subjects with any serious bacterial infection within the last 3 months, unless treated and resolved with antibiotics, or any chronic bacterial infection (e.g., chronic pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, or bronchiectasis)
Oral corticosteroids >10 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent.
Hydroxychloroquine >400 mg/day, methotrexate >25 mg/week, D-Penicillamine >1000mg/day or mycophenolate mofetil > 2 grams/day prior to baseline. **Subjects can be on combination therapy of hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate or hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil and must have been on a stable dose for at least 1 month prior to baseline visit.
Prior history of treatment in the 3 months prior to baseline with biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)potent immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine
Treatment with etanercept within ≤ 2 weeks of baseline: infliximab, certolizumab, golimumab, abatacept, tocilizumab, or adalimumab within ≤ 8 weeks of baseline; and anakinra within ≤ 1 week prior to the baseline visit.
Intravenous corticosteroids within 2 weeks prior to baseline visit.
Treatment with any investigational agent ≤ 4 weeks prior to baseline (or 5 half-lives of the investigational drug, whichever is longer)
Other investigational or marketed biologics with immunomodulatory properties within 3 months prior to baseline.
Treatment with anti-CD20 6 months prior to baseline and B cell counts <LLN
Any prior treatment with cell-depleting therapies other than anti-CD20 such as CAMPATH, anti-CD4, anti-CD5, anti-CD3, anti-CD19
Any prior treatment with chlorambucil, bone marrow transplantation, or total lymphoid irradiation
Vaccinated or exposed to a live/attenuated vaccine (other than Zostavax®) ≤ 6 weeks prior to baseline; or is expected to be vaccinated or to have household exposure to these vaccines during treatment or during the 6 weeks following discontinuation of study medication. (**See additional inclusion for obtaining Zostavax® prior to entering the study)
Pulmonary disease with Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ≤ 50% of predicted, or Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO),(uncorrected for hemoglobin) ≤ 40% of predicted
History of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with mean PAP> 30 mmHg on right heart catheterization requiring subcutaneous or intravenous prostacyclin or dual use of oral PAH therapies
Subjects at risk for tuberculosis (TB):
A. Specifically excluded from this study will be participants with a history of active TB within the last 3 years, even if it was treated; a history of active TB greater than 3 years ago, unless there is documentation that the prior anti-TB treatment was appropriate in duration and type; current clinical, radiographic, or laboratory evidence of active TB; (TB results within 30 days of screening will be accepted and will not to be repeated. B. Latent TB at or within 30 days of screening, history of or current positive purified protein derivative tuberculin skin test (PPD) ( >5mm induration, regardless of Bacille Calmette Guerin [BCG] vaccine and/or QuantiFERON Gold, a negative chest x-ray, and no symptoms or risk factors), unless one month of prophylaxis has been completed prior to inclusion
An indeterminate QuantiFERON® unless followed by a subsequent negative PPD or negative QuantiFERON® or a consultation with and clearance by local infectious disease (ID) department is required.
Positive for hepatitis B surface antigen at or within 30 days of screening
Positive for hepatitis C antigen at or within 30 days of screening
Current or recent history of uncontrolled clinically significant renal, hepatic, hematologic, gastrointestinal, metabolic, endocrine, pulmonary, cardiac or neurologic disease.
History of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), (as determined by medical records or patient reported).
History of diverticulitis or chronic, ulcerative lower gastrointestinal (GI) disease such as Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, or other symptomatic, lower GI conditions that might predispose a patient to perforations.
Pregnant or breastfeeding female subjects; and female subjects of childbearing potential who are unwilling or unable to use a highly effective method of contraception as outlined in the protocol for the duration of the study and for at least 28 days after discontinuation of study drug.
Severe acute or chronic medical or psychiatric condition or laboratory abnormality that may increase risk associated with study participation and in the judgment of the investigator would make the subject inappropriate for entry into this study.
History of systemic sclerosis (SSc) Renal Crisis within the 6 months prior to baseline.
Any of the following lab results at screening:
Hemoglobin <9 g/dL or Hematocrit <30%
White Blood Cell count <3.0 x 109/L;
Absolute Neutrophil count <1.2 x 109/L;
White Blood Cell count <3.0 x 109/L;
Absolute Neutrophil count <1.2 x 109/L;
Platelet count <100 x 109/L;
Absolute Lymphocyte count <0.75 x 109/L.
ALT or AST > 1.5 × the upper limit of normal (ULN) of normal at screening or any uncontrolled clinically significant laboratory abnormality that would affect interpretation of study data or the patient's participation in the study
Total bilirubin > upper limit of normal (ULN) at Screening.
Prior rituximab use without documentation of normalized b cell counts.
History of recurrent (more than one episode) herpes zoster or disseminated (at least one episode) herpes zoster, or disseminated (at least one episode) herpes simplex
History of any lymphoproliferative disorder, such as Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) related lymphoproliferative disorder, history of lymphoma, leukemia, or signs and symptoms suggestive of current lymphatic disease.
History of any malignancy in the last 5 years with the exception of adequately treated or excised basal cell or squamous cell or cervical cancer in situ.
Significant trauma or surgery procedure within 1 month prior to first dose of study drug.
History of alcohol or substance abuse, unless in full remission for greater than 6 months prior to first dose of study drug.