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Occurrence of Potential Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and During Acute Exacerbations of the Disease, in Asia Pacific

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03151395
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 12, 2017
Results First Posted : June 14, 2021
Last Update Posted : June 14, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
GlaxoSmithKline

Brief Summary:
Since the infectious aetiology of AECOPD has been suggested to vary according to geographical region, the primary purpose of this study (which will be conducted in several countries in Asia Pacific) is to evaluate the occurrence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the sputum of stable COPD patients and at the time of AECOPD. Given the increasing and projected burden of COPD in the Asia Pacific region, this study will also evaluate the frequency, severity and duration of AECOPD, as well as the impact of AECOPD on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), healthcare utilisation and lung function.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Respiratory Disorders Other: Sputum and blood sampling Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The protocol has been amended to implement the following changes:

  • Alignment of the protocol to the updated GOLD consensus report of 2017 and the COPD fact sheet.
  • Alignment of the study endpoints to the study objectives.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 197 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Occurrence of Potential Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and During Acute Exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), in Asia Pacific
Actual Study Start Date : August 25, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 6, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : April 6, 2020


Arm Intervention/treatment
Total Group
Moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients with at least 1 documented moderate or severe Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) in the year before enrolment and for whom sputum and blood samples are collected during specified visits
Other: Sputum and blood sampling
Evaluation of the occurrence of potential bacterial and viral pathogens in the sputum of stable COPD patients and at the time of AECOPD.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens as Identified by Bacteriological Methods, in Any Stable COPD Patients and During AECOPDs [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    The proportion of sputum samples obtained at each visit (confirmed stable or AECOPD visits) and positive for specific bacterial pathogens by bacteriological methods (overall and by bacterial species). Numerator is the number of sputum samples positive for a given pathogen and denominator is the number of visits with a sputum sample tested for a given pathogen. Proportion is computed with 95% confidence intervals. A confirmed stable visit is defined as a scheduled study visit for which the investigator confirms that the subject is stable/ has recovered from a previous exacerbation. Bacterial pathogens include Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), non-Haemophilus influenzae (Non-Hi), Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pseumoniae), Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii).

  2. Percentage of Sputum Samples Positive for Viral Pathogens as Identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Stable COPD Patients and During AECOPDs [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    The proportion of sputum samples obtained at each visit (confirmed stable visits and AECOPD visits) and positive for specific viral pathogens by PCR (overall and by viral species). The numerator is the number of sputum samples positive for a given pathogen and the denominator is the number of visits with a sputum sample tested for a given pathogen. The proportion is calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Viral pathogens, as identified by PCR, include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus, enterovirus, human rhinovirus (HRV), metapneumovirus, influenza virus, adenovirus, bocavirus and coronavirus.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens in Stable COPD Patients and During AECOPDs, as Identified by PCR [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    The proportion of sputum samples obtained at each confirmed stable/AECOPD visit and positive for specific bacterial pathogens as measured by real-time qualitative PCR/quantitative PCR, (overall and by bacterial species,) are computed with 95% confidence intervals. The numerator is the number of sputum samples positive for a given pathogen and the denominator is the number of visits with a sputum sample tested for a given pathogen. The bacterial pathogens include H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes. A confirmed stable visit is defined as a scheduled study visit for which the investigator confirms that the subject is stable / has recovered from a previous exacerbation.

  2. Number of Sputum Samples in a Given Category Relative to All Combinations for Each Bacterial Pathogen, When Identified by Bacteriological Methods or PCR, at Any Visit [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Concordance between bacteriological methods (culture) and PCR sputum results are described for all the combinations of bacterial presence by both measures. Each category name includes the following parameters: Bacteria species-Culture (yes/no)- PCR (yes/no). Concordance is expressed as the number of sputum samples in a given category among the total number of sputum samples assessed for the presence of bacterial pathogens by both culture and PCR

  3. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in Stable COPD Patients, as Identified by Bacteriological Methods, and Classified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Grade [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each confirmed stable visit, and positive for bacterial pathogens by bacteriological methods (overall and by bacterial species). The spirometric classification of airflow limitation in COPD patients is based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and can be divided into four GOLD grades [GOLD, 2013]: GOLD 1 (MILD): FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted; GOLD 2 (Moderate)= 50% ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted; GOLD 3 (Severe) = 30% ≤ FEV1 < 50% predicted; GOLD 4 (Very Severe) = FEV1 < 30% predicted.

  4. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in Stable COPD Patients, as Identified by PCR, and Classified by GOLD Grade [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each confirmed stable visit, and positive for bacterial pathogens by PCR (overall and by bacterial species). The spirometric classification of airflow limitation in COPD patients is based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and can be divided into four GOLD grades [GOLD, 2013]: GOLD 1 (MILD): FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted; GOLD 2 (Moderate)= 50% ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted; GOLD 3 (Severe) = 30% ≤ FEV1 < 50% predicted; GOLD 4 (Very Severe) = FEV1 < 30% predicted.

  5. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Viral Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in Stable COPD Patients, as Identified by PCR, and Classified by GOLD Grade [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each confirmed stable visit, and positive for virus pathogens by PCR (overall and by viral species). The spirometric classification of airflow limitation in COPD patients is based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and can be divided into four GOLD grades [GOLD, 2013]: GOLD 1 (MILD): FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted; GOLD 2 (Moderate)= 50% ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted; GOLD 3 (Severe) = 30% ≤ FEV1 < 50% predicted; GOLD 4 (Very Severe) = FEV1 < 30% predicted.

  6. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in AECOPD Patients, as Identified by Bacteriological Methods and Classified by Severity of AECOPD [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each AECOPD visit, and positive for bacterial pathogens by bacteriological methods (overall and by bacterial species). Classification of severity of AECOPD as follows: Mild = controlled with an increase in dosage of regular medications; Moderate = requires treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics; Severe = requires hospitalization.

  7. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Bacterial Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in AECOPD Patients, as Identified by PCR, and Classified by Severity of AECOPD [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each AECOPD visit, and positive for bacterial pathogens by PCR (overall and by bacterial species). Classification of severity of AECOPD is as follows: Mild = controlled with an increase in dosage of regular medications; Moderate = requires treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics; Severe = requires hospitalization.

  8. Number of Sputum Samples Positive for Viral Pathogens (Overall and by Species) in AECOPD Patients, as Identified by PCR, and Classified by Severity of AECOPD [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Number of sputum samples obtained at each AECOPD visit, and positive for viral pathogens by PCR (overall and by viral species). Classification of severity of AECOPD is as follows: Mild = controlled with an increase in dosage of regular medications; Moderate = requires treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics; Severe = requires hospitalization.

  9. Incidence Rate (Per Subject Per Year) of Confirmed and Confirmed Plus Potential AECOPDs, Overall and by GOLD Grade [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Incidence rate is estimated by the mean number of exacerbations per subject and per year from Negative Binomial model (or Poisson model in case of under dispersion) without covariates and computed with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Confirmed AECOPDs include AECOPD events plus missed AECOPD events (i.e.: all morning alerts confirmed by phone call (as well as cases with no morning alert) for which there has been no site visit but for which AECOPD medical records are available). Potential AECOPDs include all morning alert confirmed by phone call for which there has been no site visit and for which no medical records are available.

  10. Number of Subjects With AECOPDs, Classified by Number of Exacerbations and by Severity of AECOPD [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Classification of severity of AECOPD is as follows: Mild- Controlled AECOPD with an increase in dosage of regular medications; Moderate- Requires treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/ or antibiotics; Severe- Requires hospitalisation.

  11. Number of Subjects With AECOPDs, Classified by Number of Exacerbations and by GOLD Grade [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    The spirometric classification of airflow limitation in COPD patients is based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and can be divided into four GOLD grades [GOLD, 2013]: GOLD 1 (MILD): FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted; GOLD 2 (Moderate)= 50% ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted; GOLD 3 (Severe) = 30% ≤ FEV1 < 50% predicted; GOLD 4 (Very Severe) = FEV1 < 30% predicted.

  12. Number of Days of AECOPD Episodes, Overall and by AECOPD Severity [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) on the number of days of AECOPD episodes are presented, overall and by AECOPD severity.

  13. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) Score in Stable COPD Patients [ Time Frame: At Month 0, Month 6 and Month 12 ]
    The CAT is a patient-completed instrument to assess the heath-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptom burden in patients with COPD. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) on the CAT scores are tabulated at each stable visit. The CAT index is derived as the sum of the ratings recorded for each of the eight individual items. Each of these items has 6 possible scores (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5), leading to a range of 0 (best score) to 40 (worst score) for CAT score.

  14. CAT Score by Frequency of Exacerbations [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start: (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    The CAT is a patient-completed instrument to assess the HRQOL and symptom burden in patients with COPD. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) on the CAT scores are tabulated by frequency of exacerbations). The CAT index is derived as the sum of the ratings recorded for each of the eight individual items. Each of these items has 6 possible scores (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5), leading to a range of 0 (best score) to 40 (worst score) for CAT score.

  15. St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD Patients (SGRQ-C) Score in Stable COPD Patients [ Time Frame: At Month 0, Month 6 and Month 12 ]
    The SGRQ-C is designed to assess HRQOL and current health of the patients. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) on the SGRQ-C scores are tabulated at each stable visit. The SGRQ-C total score is derived as the weighted sum of the forty individual items leading to a range of 0 (best score) to 100 (worst score) as detailed in the reference manual [St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD patients, version 1.3, 2016].

  16. Post-bronchodilator FEV1 Percentage of Predicted Normal Value in Stable COPD Patients [ Time Frame: At Pre-Month 0 (screening visit) and Month 12. ]
    Summary statistics (mean, standard deviation) on post bronchodilator FEV1% of predicted normal value is tabulated at enrolment and final visit.

  17. Number of Patients With Healthcare Utilisation During Stable Periods [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Healthcare utilization includes all unscheduled visits to a physician office, visits to urgent care, visits to emergency department, and hospitalizations. The impact of AECOPD on healthcare utilization is assessed during the stable periods. Hospitalizations that were associated with the disease being studied were not collected as Adverse Events (AEs) or as serious AEs (SAEs) as per protocol.

  18. Number of Patients With Healthcare Utilisation During Exacerbation Periods [ Time Frame: Over the course of one year from the study start (Month 0 to Month 12) ]
    Healthcare utilization includes all unscheduled visits to a physician office, visits to urgent care, visits to emergency department, and hospitalizations. The impact of AECOPD on healthcare utilization is assessed during exacerbation periods. Hospitalizations that were associated with the disease being studied were not collected as AEs or as SAEs as per protocol.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects who, in the opinion of the investigator, can and will comply with the requirements of the protocol (e.g., completion of electronic Diary Card, sputum sampling, pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, return for follow-up visits).
  • Written informed consent obtained from the subject.
  • Male or female aged 40 years or older at the time of enrolment.
  • Confirmed diagnosis of moderate to very severe COPD based on post-bronchodilator spirometry (i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] over forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio [FEV1/ FVC] < 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted [GOLD grades 2, 3 and 4].
  • Stable COPD patient* with documented history** (e.g. medical record verification) of at least 1 moderate or severe AECOPD within the 12 months before study entry.

    • Patient for whom the last episode of AECOPD is resolved for at least 30 days at the time of study entry.

      • Note: A documented history of a COPD exacerbation (e.g., medical record verification) is a medical record of worsening COPD symptoms that required systemic/oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics (for a moderate exacerbation) or hospitalization (for a severe exacerbation). Prior use of antibiotics alone does not qualify as an exacerbation history unless the use was associated with treatment of worsening symptoms of COPD, such as increased dyspnea, sputum volume, or sputum purulence (color). Subject verbal reports are not acceptable.
  • Current or former tobacco smoker (cigarette) with a smoking history of ≥ 10 pack-years OR a subject exposed to biomass smoke for ≥ 20 years.
  • Able to provide a sputum sample at Screening Visit.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosed with a respiratory disorder other than COPD (such as sarcoidosis, active tuberculosis or receiving tuberculosis treatment, clinically significant bronchiectasis, lung fibrosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, lung cancer diagnosed within the previous 5 years, current primary diagnosis of asthma in the opinion of the investigator), or chest X-ray revealing evidence of clinically significant abnormalities not believed to be due to the presence of COPD*. Subjects with allergic rhinitis do not need to be excluded and may be enrolled at the discretion of the investigator.

    • A chest X-ray must be taken at Screening Visit, if no chest X-ray taken within the previous 3 months is available.
  • Diagnosis of α-1 antitrypsin deficiency as the underlying cause of COPD.
  • Undergone or has had lung surgery 12 months before, or plans to have lung surgery 12 months after, study entry.
  • Any confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive or immunodeficient condition, based on medical history and physical examination (no laboratory testing required).
  • Received chemotherapy within the 12 months before study entry.
  • Concurrently participating in another clinical study, at any time during the study period, in which the subject has been or will be exposed to an investigational or a non-investigational vaccine/ product (pharmaceutical product or device).
  • Administration of antibiotics within 1 month of study entry OR continuous administration of antibiotics (defined as more than 30 days in total) within 90 days before study entry.
  • Systemic administration of corticosteroids for more than 14 consecutive days within 90 days prior to informed consent.
  • Contraindication for spirometry testing (such as recent eye surgery, recent thoracic or abdominal surgery procedures, unstable cardiovascular status, recent myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism).
  • Psychiatric illness or any other condition that interferes with the ability to understand the study procedures.
  • Pregnant female.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03151395


Locations
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Hong Kong
GSK Investigational Site
Kowloon, Hong Kong
GSK Investigational Site
Lai Chi Kok, Hong Kong
GSK Investigational Site
Shatin, Hong Kong
Korea, Republic of
GSK Investigational Site
Bucheon, Korea, Republic of, 420-717
GSK Investigational Site
Gangwon-do, Korea, Republic of, 26426
GSK Investigational Site
Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 403-720
GSK Investigational Site
Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 03312
GSK Investigational Site
Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 156-755
Philippines
GSK Investigational Site
Iloilo, Philippines, 5000
GSK Investigational Site
Jaro, Iloilo City, Philippines, 5000
GSK Investigational Site
Manila, Philippines, 1000
GSK Investigational Site
Manila, Philippines, 1014
GSK Investigational Site
Marilao, Bulacan, Philippines, 3019
Taiwan
GSK Investigational Site
Changhua, Taiwan, 500
GSK Investigational Site
Keelung, Taiwan, 20401
GSK Investigational Site
Taichung, Taiwan, 40201
GSK Investigational Site
Taichung, Taiwan, 404
GSK Investigational Site
Taichung, Taiwan, 40705
GSK Investigational Site
Taipei, Taiwan, 100
Sponsors and Collaborators
GlaxoSmithKline
Investigators
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Study Director: GSK Clinical Trials GlaxoSmithKline
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by GlaxoSmithKline:
Study Protocol  [PDF] October 19, 2018
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] August 5, 2020

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: GlaxoSmithKline
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03151395    
Other Study ID Numbers: 201112
First Posted: May 12, 2017    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 14, 2021
Last Update Posted: June 14, 2021
Last Verified: May 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by GlaxoSmithKline:
COPD
AECOPD
GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease)
Asia Pacific
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Lung Diseases