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A Study of Melphalan Flufenamide (Melflufen) Plus Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma (HORIZON)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02963493
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 15, 2016
Results First Posted : February 1, 2022
Last Update Posted : February 9, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Precision For Medicine
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Oncopeptides AB

Brief Summary:
This study will evaluate melflufen in combination with dexamethasone in adult patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma in whose disease is refractory to pomalidomide and/or an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. All patients in the study will be treated with melflufen on Day 1 and dexamethasone on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of each 28-day cycle.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Multiple Myeloma Drug: Melphalan flufenamide (Melflufen) Drug: Dexamethasone Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) is a peptide-drug conjugate that rapidly delivers an alkylating payload into tumor cells. Peptidases are expressed in several cancers, including solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Melphalan flufenamide is rapidly taken up by myeloma cells due to its high lipophilicity. Once inside the myeloma cell, the activity of melphalan flufenamide is determined by its immediate cleavage by peptidases into hydrophilic alkylator payloads that are entrapped. Melphalan flufenamide is 50-fold more potent than melphalan in myeloma cells in vitro due to increased intracellular alkylator concentration. It rapidly induces irreversible DNA damage leading to apoptosis of myeloma cells. Melphalan flufenamide displays cytotoxic activity against myeloma cell lines resistant to other treatments, including alkylators, in vitro. Melphalan flufenamide also has demonstrated inhibition of angiogenesis and DNA damage with a lack of functional DNA repair in preclinical studies.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 157 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Single Arm, Open-Label, Phase 2 Study of Melflufen in Combination With Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed Refractory Multiple Myeloma Who Are Refractory to Pomalidomide and/or an Anti-CD38 Monoclonal Antibody
Actual Study Start Date : December 28, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 22, 2020
Actual Study Completion Date : November 16, 2021


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) + dexamethasone
Melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) 40 mg Day 1 and dexamethasone 40 mg (20 mg for patients 75 years or older) on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of each 28-day cycle.
Drug: Melphalan flufenamide (Melflufen)
Other Name: Pepaxto

Drug: Dexamethasone
IV dexamethasone may be substituted for oral dexamethasone in the US. Oral only in Europe.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall Response Rate (ORR) [ Time Frame: Patients were followed until documented progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient/physician decision to withdraw or date of death, whichever came first. Longest time to response in study recorded as 7.4 months. Longest time on study 17 months. ]
    The overall response rate (ORR) will be estimated as the percentage of patients who achieve sCR, CR, VGPR, or PR as their best response as assessed by the investigator. Response assessed by IMWG (International myeloma working group) criteria sCR-stringent complete response: CR plus Normal FLC (free light chain) ratio and absence of clonal cells in BM CR-complete response: Negative immunofixation in serum/urine; Disappearance of soft tissue plasmacytomas; <5% plasma cells in BM; If only FLC disease, normal FLC ratio (0.26-1.65) VGPR-very good partial response: Serum/urine M-protein detectable by immunofixation but not electrophoresis or ≥90% reduction in serum M-protein and urine M-protein <100 mg/24 h; If only FLC disease, >90% decrease in the difference between involved and uninvolved FLC levels PR-partial response: 50% reduction of serum M-protein and soft tissue plasmacytomas, ≥90% reduction in urinary M-protein or to <200 mg/24 h; other special cases if M-protein unmeasurable


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Progression Free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: Patients were followed until documented progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient/physician decision to withdraw or date of death, whichever came first. Longest time on study 17 months at data cutoff, 26 patients were still on study ]
    Time from start of treatment to either progression or death, whichever comes first as assessed by the investigator using IMWG criteria. Progression of disease is defined by an increase of 25% from the lowest response for either of Serum M-component (absolute increase of ≥ 0.5 g/dL) or Urine M-component (absolute increase of ≥200 mg/ 24h); In patients without measurable M-protein a 25% increase in the difference between involved and uninvolved FLC (free light chain) levels (absolute increase must be >10 mg/dL); If unmeasurable FLC levels, a 25% increase in bone marrow plasma cell percentage (absolute percentage must be >10%); New bone or soft tissue plasmacytomas or definite increase in existing ones; Development of hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium >11.5 mg/dL) that can be attributed solely to the plasma cell proliferative disorder

  2. Duration of Response [ Time Frame: From date of response until the date of first documented progression or date of death from any cause, whichever came first. Longest time on study 17 months at data cutoff. 26 patients were still on study. ]
    Time from first response to progression based on investigator assessment. See definitions of response and progression in ORR and PFS outcomes.

  3. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: From date of first dose of study medication until the date of death from any cause, assessed up to 24 months after study drug discontinuation ]
    Time from start of treatment to death

  4. Functional Status and Well-being: EORTC QLQ-C30 [ Time Frame: To be assessed prior to dosing at Cycle 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and End of Treatment. 23 patients were ongoing for QoL assessments at data cutoff. QoL was added in Protocol Amendment 4 beginning in Oct. 2018. ]
    Change from baseline in Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30. The EORTC QLQ-C30 includes 30 items resulting in 5 functional scales, 1 Global Health Status scale, 3 symptom scales, and 6 single items. The recall period is 1 week (the past week). The scales are transformed to a 0 (worst) to 100 (best) scale. The QLQ-C30 summary score is calculated as the mean of the combined 13 QLQ-C30 scale and item scores (excluding global QoL and financial impact), with a higher score indicating a better HRQoL. If at least 50% of the items from the scale had been answered, the missing items were assumed to have values equal to the average of those items which were present for that respondent.

  5. Functional Status and Well-being: EQ-5D-3L [ Time Frame: To be assessed prior to dosing at Cycle 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and End of Treatment. 23 patients were ongoing for QoL assessments at data cutoff. QoL was added in Protocol Amendment 4 beginning in Oct. 2018. ]
    Change from baseline in Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire EQ-5D-3L. The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire converts 5 dimensions: Mobility, Self-Care, Usual Activities, Pain/Discomfort, and Anxiety/Depression of patient-reported, current-day health status into a "health utility" score. For the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire, each dimension is scored on an ordinal scale with 3 available levels of response and scores ranging from 1 to 3, "no problems," "some problems," and "extreme problems," respectively. The EQ VAS scores rates "health today" with anchors ranging from 0 (worst imaginable health state) to 100 (best imaginable health state). No imputation of missing items or composite scores were done. The scores for the 5 dimensions are used to compute a single utility score ranging from zero (0.0) to 1 (1.0) representing the general health status of the individual.

  6. Clinical Benefit Rate [ Time Frame: Patients were followed until documented progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient/physician decision to withdraw or date of death, whichever came first. Longest time on study 17 months at data cutoff, 26 patients were still on study ]
    The clinical benefit rate (CBR) will be estimated as the percentage of patients who achieve sCR, CR, VGPR, PR, or MR as their best response as assessed by the investigator. See Primary Outcome (ORR) for definitions of response categories.

  7. Time to Response [ Time Frame: From start of treatment to first confirmed response. Longest time to response in study recorded as 7.4 months. ]
    Duration from start of treatment to the first occurrence of a confirmed response of PR or better as assessed by the investigator. See definitions of response in Primary Outcome (ORR).

  8. Time to Progression [ Time Frame: From start of treatment to first evidence of disease progression or date of death from any cause, whichever came first. Longest time on study 17 months at data cutoff, 26 patients were still on study. ]
    Duration from start of treatment to first evidence of disease progression as assessed by the investigator. See definitions of response and progression in ORR and PFS outcomes.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female, age 18 years or older
  • A prior diagnosis of multiple myeloma with documented disease progression
  • Measurable disease based on either of a) serum monoclonal protein by protein electrophoresis (SPEP), b) monoclonal protein in the urine on 24-hour urine electrophoresis (UPEP), and/or c) serum immunoglobulin free light chain combined with abnormal serum immunoglobulin kappa to lambda free light chain ratio
  • A minimum of 2 prior lines of therapy including an IMiD and a PI and is refractory to pomalidomide and/or daratumumab
  • Life expectancy of ≥ 6 months
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤ 2
  • Female of child bearing potential (FCBP) and non-vasectomized male agree to practice appropriate methods of birth control
  • Ability to understand the purpose and risks of the study and provide signed and dated informed consent and authorization to use protected health information
  • 12-lead ECG with QTc interval within defined limit
  • Acceptable laboratory results during screening and prior to first study drug administration of the following parameters: absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST/SGOT) and alanine transaminase (ALT/SGPT), renal function based on estimated creatinine clearance
  • Must have, or accept to have, an acceptable central catheter for infusion of melflufen

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Evidence of mucosal or internal bleeding and/or is platelet transfusion refractory
  • Any medical conditions that, in the Investigator's opinion, would impose excessive risk to the patient or would adversely affect his/her participating in this study
  • Known active infection requiring parenteral or oral anti-infective treatment within defined period
  • Primary refractory disease
  • Other malignancy diagnosed or requiring treatment within the defined period with specific exceptions
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding females
  • Serious psychiatric illness, active alcoholism, or drug addiction that may hinder or confuse compliance or follow-up evaluation
  • Known HIV or active hepatitis B or C viral infection
  • Concurrent symptomatic amyloidosis or plasma cell leukemia
  • POEMS syndrome [plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein (M-protein) and skin changes]
  • Previous cytotoxic therapies, including cytotoxic investigational agents, for multiple myeloma within defined values prior to start of study treatment
  • Residual side effects to previous therapy over specific grade prior to initiation of therapy
  • Prior autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant within defined period of initiation of therapy
  • Prior allogeneic stem cell transplant with active graft-versus-host- disease (GVHD).
  • Prior major surgical procedure or radiation therapy within specified period of the first dose of study treatment (with defined exception).
  • Known intolerance to steroid therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02963493


Locations
Show Show 20 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Oncopeptides AB
Precision For Medicine
Investigators
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Study Chair: Johan Harmenberg, MD, PhD Oncopeptides AB
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Oncopeptides AB:
Study Protocol  [PDF] March 20, 2020
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] February 26, 2020

Publications of Results:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Oncopeptides AB
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02963493    
Other Study ID Numbers: OP-106
First Posted: November 15, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 1, 2022
Last Update Posted: February 9, 2022
Last Verified: February 2022
Keywords provided by Oncopeptides AB:
relapsed refractory multiple myeloma
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Myeloma
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Paraproteinemias
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Dexamethasone
Melphalan
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antiemetics
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Gastrointestinal Agents
Glucocorticoids
Hormones
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action