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Impact of Ferric Citrate vs Ferrous Sulfate on Iron Parameters and Hemoglobin in Individuals With CKD and Iron Deficiency

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02888171
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 2, 2016
Results First Posted : March 24, 2020
Last Update Posted : March 24, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Orlando M. Gutierrez, MD, MMSc, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Brief Summary:
The main objective of the study is to compare the impact of oral ferric citrate compared to standard of care oral ferrous sulfate on serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, ferritin, hepcidin and hemoglobin levels in individuals with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) and absolute iron deficiency.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Kidney Disease Iron Deficiency Anemia Drug: ferric citrate Drug: ferrous sulfate Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Ferric citrate is an FDA-approved oral phosphorus binder that has been shown to be effective in reducing serum phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations and increasing iron stores and hemoglobin in individuals with non-dialysis-dependent CKD who have iron-deficiency anemia. This may prove to be advantageous in individuals with pre-dialysis CKD who require iron supplementation for iron-deficiency anemia. This is because ferric citrate may not only restore iron stores in individuals who are iron deficient, but by lowering FGF23 concentrations, ferric citrate may increase local and systemic concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, a powerful inhibitor of hepcidin synthesis, potentially attenuating the increase in hepcidin following oral iron supplementation. When compared to standard iron supplementation therapies (e.g., oral ferrous sulfate) that powerfully stimulate hepcidin secretion, this may then allow for greater iron bioavailability by increasing iron absorption in the gut while also reducing the degree of iron sequestration in reticuloendothelial system stores. However, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of treatment with oral ferric citrate vs. oral ferrous sulfate (currently the standard of care) in increasing iron stores and hemoglobin in iron-deficient CKD patients. If ferric citrate is shown to not only improve overall iron status, but also partially mitigate the long-term effects of iron supplementation on hepcidin secretion by increasing endogenously produced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, this may indicate that ferric citrate can provide superior short- and long-term effects on iron-restricted erythropoiesis in CKD as compared to the current standard of care. The main objectives of the study are to compare the impact of ferric citrate compared to standard of care ferrous sulfate on serum iron, percent transferrin saturation (TSAT), ferritin, hemoglobin and hepcidin concentrations in individuals with moderate to severe CKD and absolute iron deficiency.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 60 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Impact of Ferric Citrate vs Ferrous Sulfate on Iron Parameters and Hemoglobin in Individuals With Moderate to Severe Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) With Iron Deficiency
Actual Study Start Date : September 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 12, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : March 30, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: ferric citrate
Participants randomized to the ferric citrate arm will receive 2 grams of ferric citrate three times a day with each meal.
Drug: ferric citrate
Participants randomized to the ferric citrate arm will take 2 grams of ferric citrate three times a day with meals.
Other Name: Auryxia

Active Comparator: ferrous sulfate
Participants randomized to the ferrous sulfate arm will receive 325 mg of ferrous sulfate three times a day
Drug: ferrous sulfate
Participants randomized to the ferrous sulfate arm will take 325 mg of ferrous sulfate three times a day.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Ferritin From Baseline to End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks ]
    The change in serum ferritin concentrations from the baseline of the study to the 12 week time point.

  2. Change in Transferrin Saturation From Baseline to End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks ]
    The change in serum transferrin saturation from the baseline to the end of treatment


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Hemoglobin From Baseline to End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks ]
    The change in hemoglobin concentrations from the baseline visit to the 12-week time point.

  2. Change in Hepcidin From Baseline to the End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks ]
    The change in hepcidin concentrations from the baseline visit to the 12-week time point.

  3. Change in Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 From Baseline to the End of Treatment [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 weeks ]
    The change in fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations from the baseline visit to the 12-week time point.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 years or greater
  • Moderate to severe CKD not requiring dialysis (eGFR 15 - 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 by CKD-EPI)
  • Absolute iron deficiency (serum ferritin <300ng/ml and Transferrin Saturation < 30%)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Hemoglobin concentrations > 13 g/dL
  • Known disorder of iron homeostasis (e.g., hemochromatosis)
  • Known gastrointestinal disorder (irritable bowel disease, inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Known liver disease (ALT/AST or bilirubin > 3x normal)
  • Serum phosphorus concentrations < 3.0 mg/dL
  • Any known cause of anemia other than iron deficiency or CKD (e.g., sickle cell anemia)
  • Symptomatic gastrointestinal bleeding within 12 weeks prior to the screening visit.
  • Subjects receiving any form of renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or renal transplant.
  • Pregnancy or lactation in female participants
  • Severe anemia defined as a hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL for males or a hemoglobin <7.0 g/dL for females.
  • Receipt of erythropoiesis stimulating agents within 4 weeks of screening.
  • Receipt of intravenous iron therapy within 8 weeks of screening.
  • Blood transfusion within 4 weeks of screening
  • Known allergies or severe adverse reactions to previous oral iron therapy
  • Current use of oral phosphorus binders.
  • Current use of an active vitamin D analog

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02888171


Locations
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United States, Alabama
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Orlando M Gutierrez, MD University of Alabama at Birmingham
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Orlando M. Gutierrez, MD, MMSc, University of Alabama at Birmingham:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Orlando M. Gutierrez, MD, MMSc, Associate Professor, University of Alabama at Birmingham
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02888171    
Other Study ID Numbers: F160318006
First Posted: September 2, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 24, 2020
Last Update Posted: March 24, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Kidney Diseases
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency
Urologic Diseases
Renal Insufficiency
Anemia, Hypochromic
Anemia
Hematologic Diseases
Iron Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases