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Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use on the Lungs

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02596685
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 4, 2015
Last Update Posted : July 23, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Peter Shields, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center

Brief Summary:
This randomized pilot clinical trial studies the effects of electronic cigarettes on the lungs. Studying the effects of electronic cigarettes on the lungs may provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other government regulators with important information, which may help in developing future regulations to make electronic cigarettes safer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Current Smoker Never Smoker Tobacco Use Disorder Former Smoker E-cig User Procedure: Bronchoscopy Other: Electronic Cigarette Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Other: Questionnaire Administration Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

1) To conduct a pilot cross-sectional study of e-cig users (n=16), never-smokers (n=8 - completed under an earlier version of the protocol before never-smokers were used for Aim 2), (newly added n=15), former smokers who have quit smoking and are currently not using e-cigs (n=15), former smokers who switched to e-cigs (n=15) and smokers (n=16) [total n=85), to better determine the influence of e-cig and smoking use (i.e., power) between never smokers and e-cig users, and to compare former smokers with e-cig use, and assessing use patterns and biomarkers by bronchoscopies using bronchioalveolar lavage (cell counts, inflammatory cytokines, untargeted metabolomics, and microbiome assessment), bronchial brushings (miRNA and mRNA expression, DNA methylation, acrolein DNA adducts, and mitochondrial DNA mutations and copy number variation), blood and urine to assess exposure to the e-cigs ingredients, saliva for oral microbiome assessment, and nasal brushing and nasal lavages for the lung toxicity as examined in this study as surrogate markers for the lung. We will also measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as a marker of lower airway inflammation; and,

1a) Conduct a supplemental contamination study to measure if bacteria from oral cavity, nasal cavity or oropharynx may contaminate BAL fluid recovered during the bronchoscopy (n=30). Contamination analyses will measure if bacterial species found in oral cavity, nasal cavity and oropharynx are recovered in BAL. Contamination analyses will not examine differences between groups.

2) To conduct a 4 week pilot clinical trial of nicotine-free and flavor-free e-cig use in never-smokers (n=30), randomized to e-cig use (n=15) or control (no e-cig use) (n=15), and assess biomarkers as in Aim 1 by bronchoscopy at baseline and at 4 weeks while on product (week 5 of trial).

OUTLINE:

PART I: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM I: Patients undergo bronchoscopy of the left lung over 30-60 minutes.

ARM II: Patients undergo bronchoscopy of the right lung over 30-60 minutes.

PART II: Patients who are never-smokers are then randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

ARM A: Patients receive nicotine-free and flavor-free electronic cigarettes and instructed to use them twice daily (BID) over a 2 hour period for 4 weeks.

ARM B: Patients receive no intervention.

In both arms, patients undergo a second bronchoscopy during week 5.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 145 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Effects of Electronic Cigarette Use on the Human Lung
Study Start Date : December 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: E-Cigarettes

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm A (electronic-cigarette)

Patients receive nicotine-free and flavor-free electronic cigarettes and instructed to use them BID over a 2 hour period for 4 weeks.

Patients undergo a second bronchoscopy during week 5.

Procedure: Bronchoscopy
Undergo bronchoscopy

Other: Electronic Cigarette
Given nicotine-free and flavor-free electronic cigarettes
Other Names:
  • e-Cigarette
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery System

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Questionnaire Administration
Ancillary studies

Experimental: Arm B (control)

Patients receive no intervention.

Patients undergo a second bronchoscopy during week 5.

Procedure: Bronchoscopy
Undergo bronchoscopy

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Questionnaire Administration
Ancillary studies

Experimental: Arm I (bronchoscopy of the left lung)
Patients undergo bronchoscopy of the left lung over 30-60 minutes.
Procedure: Bronchoscopy
Undergo bronchoscopy

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Questionnaire Administration
Ancillary studies

Experimental: Arm II (bronchoscopy of the right lung)
Patients undergo bronchoscopy of the right lung over 30-60 minutes.
Procedure: Bronchoscopy
Undergo bronchoscopy

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Questionnaire Administration
Ancillary studies




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Biomarker expression analysis to include cell counts [ Time Frame: Up to week 5 ]
    Using bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushings for gene expression use patterns and biomarkers will be assessed and compared between two groups (e.g., non-smokers vs. smokers). For univariable comparisons, non-parametric methods such as the Kruskal-Wallis H-test for more than two independent groups and the Mann Whitney U-test for two independent groups will be used. Group associations controlling for possible confounders or effect modifiers will be explored using multiple linear regression models.

  2. Biomarker expression analysis to include inflammatory cytokines (Part I) [ Time Frame: Up to week 5 ]
    Using bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushings for gene expression use patterns and biomarkers will be assessed and compared between two groups (e.g., non-smokers vs. smokers). For univariable comparisons, non-parametric methods such as the Kruskal-Wallis H-test for more than two independent groups and the Mann Whitney U-test for two independent groups will be used. Group associations controlling for possible confounders or effect modifiers will be explored using multiple linear regression models.

  3. Biomarker expression analysis to include untargeted metabolomics (Part I) [ Time Frame: Up to week 5 ]
    Using bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushings for gene expression use patterns and biomarkers will be assessed and compared between two groups (e.g., non-smokers vs. smokers). For univariable comparisons, non-parametric methods such as the Kruskal-Wallis H-test for more than two independent groups and the Mann Whitney U-test for two independent groups will be used. Group associations controlling for possible confounders or effect modifiers will be explored using multiple linear regression models.

  4. Biomarker expression analysis to include gene expression (Part I) [ Time Frame: Up to week 5 ]
    Using bronchoalveolar lavage, and bronchial brushings for gene expression use patterns and biomarkers will be assessed and compared between two groups (e.g., non-smokers vs. smokers). For univariable comparisons, non-parametric methods such as the Kruskal-Wallis H-test for more than two independent groups and the Mann Whitney U-test for two independent groups will be used. Group associations controlling for possible confounders or effect modifiers will be explored using multiple linear regression models.

  5. Number of Participants With Abnormal Laboratory Values and/or Adverse Events That Are Related to Treatment (Part II) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 5 weeks ]
    Descriptive statistics and plots will be used to informally assess changes in biological parameters between bronchoscopies; repeated measures models may be used to control for possible confounding between the groups as well as provide estimates for future power calculations.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Aim 1 only: 1) smokers who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day with a stable smoking pattern of at least 6 months and no prior e-cig use within one year. Smoking status will be confirmed by salivary cotinine; subjects with at least 10 ng/ml cotinine in their saliva being considered smokers [150]. 2) e-cig users who report using e-cigs daily for 3 months with at least one nicotine-containing cartridge/day or 1 ml of liquid/day. They should have not smoked a cigarette for at least one year. 3) former smokers currently using nicotine-containing e-cigs who have completely switched to e-cigs 1-5 years earlier, and previously smoked >10 cigs/day for >1 year. 4) former-smokers who have quit smoking 1-5 years previously, and who previously smoked >10 cigs/day for >1 year and no e-cig use for a year and <10 days in their lifetime. 5) never-smokers who have smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and not for at least 1 year, and not have used an e-cig for at least 1 year. Lack of regular smoking will be confirmed by NicAlert.
  • Aim 2 only: Non-smokers who have smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and not for at least 1 year, and not have used an e-cig for at least 1 year. Lack of regular smoking will be confirmed by salivary cotinine. Participants should be in good physical and mental health, particularly those randomized to the control condition;
  • No unstable and significant medical conditions as determined by medical history (see exclusion criteria below) to ensure safety of the subject, to minimize the effects of poor health on biomarker measures and to maximize compliance to study procedures);
  • Able to read adequately to complete the survey and related study documents or give consent; and
  • Subject has provided written informed consent to participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Immune system disorders, pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma within the prior 5 years, acute bronchitis within 1 year, COPD, chronic bronchitis, and restrictive lung disease), clinically diagnosed kidney or liver diseases, or any other medical disorders that will increase the risk from bronchoscopy, affect biomarker data, or increase risk of an adverse effect from e-cig use. All subjects are screened by a pulmonologist obtaining a medical history and a physical examination (heart, lungs and oral cavity) to ensure no increased risk from bronchoscopy or e-cig use;
  • General anesthesia within one year;
  • Use of inhalant medications in the last 3 months;
  • Use of antibiotics in prior 30 days;
  • Use of steroids, including corticosteroids, in prior 30 days;
  • Allergies to study medications, such as, lidocaine, Versed, Fentanyl or Cetacaine
  • Bronchoscopy or any other lung procedure for any reason within the previous year;
  • Current or recent (within three months) alcohol or drug abuse problems, including marijuana use within the last 30 days. Subjects with a positive Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) strip test at any visit will be excluded;
  • Other tobacco use (e.g., combustible products, vapors, etc.) within the last 3 months;
  • Other tobacco use within the past year for 7 consecutive days or 14 times.
  • Currently using nicotine replacement or other tobacco cessation products (to minimize confounding effects of another product) or intention to quit in next three months;
  • BMI > 40 (risk of unstable airway)
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding in prior 3 months - If the subject is female, the investigator will provide a urine pregnancy test at no cost to the subject. The subject will take the pregnancy test before each bronchoscopy; and,
  • Unable to read for comprehension or completion of study documents.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02596685


Contacts
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Contact: The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center OSUCCCClinicaltrials@osumc.edu

Locations
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United States, Ohio
Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Recruiting
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210
Contact: Sarah Reisinger, MPH, MCHES    614-366-4542    Sarah.Reisinger@osumc.edu   
Principal Investigator: Peter G. Shields         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Peter Shields, MD Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Peter Shields, Principal Investigator, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02596685    
Other Study ID Numbers: OSU-15098
NCI-2015-00842 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
P50CA180908 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 4, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 23, 2018
Last Verified: July 2018
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Tobacco Use Disorder
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Nicotine
Ganglionic Stimulants
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Nicotinic Agonists
Cholinergic Agonists
Cholinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action