COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH: Menu

XILO-FIST, the Effect of Allopurinol on the Brain Heart and Blood Pressure After Stroke (XILO-FIST)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02122718
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : April 24, 2014
Last Update Posted : September 6, 2019
University of Glasgow
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde

Brief Summary:

Recurrent stroke and cognitive decline are common after ischaemic stroke. Allopurinol, a drug usually used to treat gout, has been shown to reduce heart ischaemia, heart size, and arterial stiffness and to relax brain blood vessels and may reduce the blood pressure. All of these properties may be associated with a lower risk of second stroke and cognitive decline. We now aim to explore whether allopurinol will reduce further damage to the brain (called white matter hyper-intensities) after stroke and also whether it reduces heart size and blood pressure after stroke.

We will conduct a multi-centre randomised, double-blind placebo controlled study to investigate whether two years allopurinol 300 mg twice per day (BD) improves these 3 outcomes, which are inextricably linked to risk of recurrence and cognitive decline after ischaemic stroke.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Ischaemic Stroke Drug: Allopurinol Drug: Placebo Phase 4

Detailed Description:

New strategies are needed to improve long-term outcomes after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Approximately 13% of participants suffered recurrent stroke in recent secondary preventative trials , 40% of patients with TIA experience recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events during long-term follow up and there is an additional substantial burden from incident post-stroke dementia (~ 10% after first stroke and higher still after recurrent events) , cognitive decline (over 30%) and decline in physical function. Improving these outcomes is a recognised priority area for stroke research (as identified by stroke survivors through the recent James Lind Alliance priority setting workshops ).

Such adverse outcomes are particularly common in those with brain white matter hyper-intensities (WMH) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) . WMH are seen in as many as 90% of patients with ischaemic stroke , , are at least moderately severe in 50%6 and such 'severe' WMH are associated with substantially higher stroke recurrence rates (43% in one study)6, death and increased cognitive and physical decline. The burden of WMH increases during longitudinal follow up and this is associated with increased incident stroke, dementia and cognitive decline5. In the longitudinal population based Rotterdam scan study, 39% of elderly participants had WMH progression (over a mean period of 3.4 years) , as did 50% in the recent PROFeSS MRI sub-study (over 2 years)7 and 74% (over 3 years) in the Leukoariosis and Disability study (LADIS) .Similarly, silent brain infarction (SBI) is also associated with recurrent stroke and 14% developed incident infarcts on brain MRI in the Rotterdam scan study9. Thus, treatments that reduce WMH progression and incident silent brain infarction could have potentially profound effects on a variety of outcomes after stroke including cognition, functional outcome and recurrent stroke.

The pathological basis for WMH development and progression is poorly understood. Post mortem studies show presence of varied pathologies including demyelination, infarction, arteriosclerosis and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Key risk factors for development and progression of WMH are age, arterial hypertension and previous stroke9 and associations with other cardiovascular risk factors and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) have been demonstrated . Blood pressure (BP) lowering reduces WMH progression, as demonstrated by the PROGRESS MRI sub-study . In the PROFeSS MRI sub-study WMH progression was unaffected by the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan7 but unlike PROGRESS, there was no significant difference in BP between groups. In addition, WMH are less clearly related to hypertension in older patients with established cardiovascular disease meaning that novel strategies which reduce WMH progression and SBI would be particularly promising in this group.

The association between WMH and LVH is of particular interest; it appears independent of arterial BP , and may be mediated by aortic stiffness . There are additional potential mechanisms for this association (e.g., LVH is the strongest predictor of left atrial appendage thrombi, stronger than any left atrial parameter) . Regression of LVH is associated with reduced risk of stroke. In a recent meta-analysis of 14 studies in 12,809 patients, LVH regression was independently associated with a 25% reduction in future strokes, whereas the composite endpoint of CV events/mortality was only 15% lower . Similar findings were seen in the LIFE echo sub-study which utilised measures of left ventricular mass (LVM) . LVH regression is thus a promising therapeutic target in devising new ways to prevent strokes, especially if the same treatment were found to reduce WMH.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 464 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition for Improvement of Long-term Outcomes Following Ischaemic Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack
Study Start Date : May 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : February 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Allopurinol Drug: Allopurinol
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Drug: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. White matter hyper-intensities (WMH) progression rate over 2 years, defined using the Rotterdam Progression Score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. change in mean day-time systolic BP at 1 month [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
  2. change in mean day-time diastolic BP at 1 month [ Time Frame: 1 month ]
  3. Schmidt's Progression Score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  4. Fazekas score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  5. Scheltens scale score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  6. New brain infarction on MRI [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  7. Rotterdam Progression Score with those who die / become too frail to undergo MRI being assigned the highest score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  8. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  9. Incident dementia [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  10. change in mean day-time systolic BP at 2 years [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  11. change in mean day-time diastolic BP at 2 years [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  12. blood pressure variability [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  13. Quality of life (EQ-5D, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL)) [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  14. Recurrent stroke [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  15. Recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or cardiac death [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  16. Mortality [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  17. Incident atrial fibrillation [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  18. Clinic blood pressure [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Cardiac sub-study: Change in measured Left ventricular mass (LVM) at 2 years [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  2. Cardiac sub-study: change in ejection fraction [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  3. Cardiac Sub-study: change in end diastolic volume [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  4. Cardiac sub-study: change in end systolic volume [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  5. Cardiac Sub-study: change in stroke volume [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
  6. Cardiac sub-study: change in left atrial diameter [ Time Frame: 2 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Ischaemic Stroke/ Ischaemic lesion on brain imaging in relevant anatomical territory in patients with transient ischaemic attack.
  • Age greater than 50 years. -- Consent within one month of stroke.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Modified Rankin scale score of 5 (at end of the possible enrolment window of one month after stroke).
  • Diagnosis of dementia (defined as a documented diagnosis or a screening Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) score of 3.6 or more).
  • Cognitive impairment deemed sufficient to compromise capacity to consent or to comply with the protocol (in the opinion of the local investigator).
  • Dependent on daily help from others for basic or instrumental activities of daily living prior to stroke (defined as assistance needed with toileting, walking or dressing).
  • Significant co-morbidity or frailty likely to cause death within 24 months or likely to make adherence to study protocol difficult for participant (in the opinion of the local investigator).
  • Contra-indication to or indication for administration of allopurinol (as detailed in Summary of Product Characteristics on the XILO-FIST web portal and in trial master file).
  • Concurrent azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine therapy, other cytotoxic therapies, cyclosporin, theophylline and didanosine.
  • Significant hepatic impairment (defined as serum bilirubin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) or Alanine transaminase (ALT) greater than three times upper limit of normal (ULN)).
  • Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate < 30 mls/min
  • Contraindication to MRI scanning.
  • Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Women of childbearing potential who are unable or unwilling to use contraception.
  • Prisoners.
  • Active participation in another Clinical Trial of Investigational Medicinal Product (CTIMP) or device trial or participation within the past month.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02122718

Show Show 21 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde
University of Glasgow
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Jesse Dawson University of Glasgow
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Identifier: NCT02122718    
Other Study ID Numbers: GN12MT494
TSA BHF 2013/01 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: The Stroke Association )
First Posted: April 24, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 6, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Enzyme Inhibitors
Gout Suppressants
Antirheumatic Agents
Free Radical Scavengers
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs