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A Pilot Study of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Evaluate Safety, Acceptability, and Adherence in At-Risk Populations in Kenya, Africa

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00971230
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 3, 2009
Last Update Posted : August 9, 2010
Information provided by:
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

Brief Summary:

This study will evaluate the safety and acceptability of an intermittent and daily PrEP regimen using Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate plus Emtricitabine (FTC/TDF) in men and women at risk for HIV, and it will directly compare adherence and intracellular drug levels in daily and intermittent PrEP recipients. It will also evaluate the relationship between drug adherence, sexual behavior and intracellular drug levels with an intermittent PrEP regimen. In addition it will evaluate the relationship between adherence to an intermittent PrEP regimen and timing of sexual activity in relation to PrEP dosing. The study will use objective medication event monitoring medication event monitors (MEMS) adherence measurement and evaluate the feasibility of newer adherence measurements such as hair sampling and plasma drug levels. The study will also evaluate the feasibility of using SMS (text messages) to collect sexual activity data in an African setting. It will allow study teams and communities to prepare for potential subsequent larger trials of intermittent PrEP. This study is not sized to evaluate efficacy. If the intermittent PrEP regimen is shown to be safe, feasible in terms of adherence, and achieves intracellular drug levels similar to daily PrEP, these data could be used to design a larger phase 2 study with one or more intermittent PrEP regimens. The goal of such a trial would be to provide bridging data if daily PrEP regimens are found to be effective or to prepare for efficacy or non-inferiority trials of intermittent versus daily PrEP.

Investigation of immune responses associated with FTC/TDF will also be evaluated in the pilot study. The proportion of volunteers on FTC/TDF with HIV-specific immune responses, due to exposures that did not lead to established HIV infection, will be assessed at 2-3 time points and compared to responses in volunteers assigned to placebo. Immune responses may be correlated with risk behavior and host factors, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. As noted above, very few HIV infections are expected to occur during the study, so correlation of HIV-specific immune responses and protection from infection or attenuation of disease progression will not be possible until a larger study is conducted.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infections Drug: FTC/TDF Drug: Placebo Phase 1 Phase 2

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 72 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Pilot Study of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) to Evaluate Safety, Acceptability, and Adherence in At-risk Populations in Kenya, Africa
Study Start Date : October 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2010

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: FTC/TDF- Daily
FTC/TDF dosed daily
emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Experimental: FTC/TDF-Intermittent
FTC/TDF dosed intermittently
emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Placebo Comparator: Placebo-Daily
Placebo dosed daily
Drug: Placebo

Placebo Comparator: Placebo-Intermittent
Placebo dosed intermittently
Drug: Placebo

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety and tolerability: The proportion of volunteers with moderate and greater severity clinical adverse events; mild, moderate and greater severity of renal toxicities, and other moderate and severe laboratory abnormalities. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  2. Acceptability: The proportion of volunteers who report willingness to use the study regimen [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  3. Intracellular drug concentrations: The mean intracellular drug concentration for each group assigned to FTC/TDF [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  4. Adherence: Proportion of volunteers who took, by MEMS data, at least 80% of expected doses of the IP; Proportion of volunteers assigned to FTC/TDF who have detectable drug plasma levels within 48 hrs of use. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  5. Behavioral: Reported number of steady and casual sex partners; Frequency of unprotected vaginal and/or anal intercourse; Substance use prior to or during sex [ Time Frame: 6 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Proportion of volunteers who report somewhat high or high levels of burden in using electronic medication monitoring to measure adherence, and using cell phone communication to measure sexual activity [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  2. The proportion of study days with missing SMS sexual activity data [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  3. The proportion of volunteers who report sharing medications [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  4. The proportion of volunteers assigned to placebo who have detectable intracellular drug levels [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  5. The proportion of volunteers with HIV-specific immune responses as measured by analysis of cellular or humoral immune response, or changes in gene regulation as measured by microarray or proteomic techniques [ Time Frame: 6 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 49 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria

  • Willing to comply with the requirements of the protocol and available for follow-up for the planned duration of the study
  • Has understood the information provided and has provided written informed consent before any study-related procedures are performed
  • Willing to undergo HIV testing, STI screening, HIV counselling and receive HIV and STI test results
  • At risk for HIV infection as defined by at least one of the following:

    • Current sexually-transmitted infection (STI) or STI in the previous 3 months
    • In the past 3 months had multiple episodes of unprotected vaginal sex
    • In the past 3 months had multiple episodes of unprotected anal sex
    • In the past 3 months engaged in sex work for money or drugs
  • If a female of childbearing potential (i.e., not post-menopausal or surgically sterile), using an effective method of non-barrier contraception (hormonal contraceptive; intrauterine device (IUD); surgical sterility) from 7 days prior to randomization until the end of the study. All female volunteers must be willing to undergo urine pregnancy tests

Exclusion Criteria

  • Confirmed HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection
  • Any clinically significant acute or chronic medical condition that is considered progressive or in the opinion of the investigator would make the volunteer unsuitable for the study, including severe infections requiring treatment such as tuberculosis, and alcohol or drug abuse
  • Any of the following abnormal laboratory parameters:

    • Haemoglobin <9.0 g/dL
    • Creatinine clearance <80mL/min, as calculated by Cockcroft-Gault equation
    • AST: >2.5 x ULN
    • ALT: >2.5 x ULN
    • Total bilirubin >1.5 x ULN
    • Serum amylase >1.5 x ULN
    • Serum phosphorus <2.4 mg/dL
    • Urinalysis: Two abnormal dipsticks showing any of the following:

      • blood = 2+ or more (not due to menses)
      • protein = 1+ or more
      • leucocytes = 2+ or more
      • glucose= 1+ or more
  • Confirmed diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B infection (HBsAg positive)
  • If female, pregnant or planning a pregnancy within 4 months after enrolment or lactating
  • Participation in another clinical study of an investigational product currently, within the 3 months prior to enrolment or expected participation during this study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00971230

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Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast
Kilifi, Kenya
Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative, University of Nairobi
Nairobi, Kenya
Sponsors and Collaborators
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
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Principal Investigator: Gaudensia Mutua, MB.ChB, MPH Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative, University of Nairobi
Principal Investigator: E.J. Sanders, MD, MPH, PhD Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast
Study Chair: Omu Anzala, MB.ChB, Phd Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative, University of Nairobi
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Patricia Fast MD PhD, Chief Medical Officer, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Identifier: NCT00971230    
Other Study ID Numbers: IAVI E001
First Posted: September 3, 2009    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 9, 2010
Last Verified: August 2010
Keywords provided by International AIDS Vaccine Initiative:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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HIV Infections
Blood-Borne Infections
Communicable Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases