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Improving Informed Consent in Pediatric Endoscopy

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00899392
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 12, 2009
Results First Posted : July 30, 2013
Last Update Posted : July 30, 2013
Midwestern University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Brief Summary:
Informed consent/assent in pediatric medicine is an accepted and important practice that has been rarely studied, tested for quality, or optimized for patient satisfaction. In the pursuit of enhancing and studying pediatric care, the investigators propose, as pediatric gastroenterologists, assessing the current state of parental and adolescent consent/assent in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and offering a computer based education program to improve it. The investigators will look at outcomes that include anxiety, satisfaction, attainment of informed consent, and patient flow efficiency in a GI endoscopy suite.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Informed Consent Procedural State Anxiety Subject's Satisfaction Other: Emmi Pediatric Upper Endoscopy Patient Education Module Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Two hundred first-time upper endoscopy patients from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia will be prospectively selected for participation in the study. One hundred subjects will then be randomized to participate in either the standard consent arm or the electronic assisted informed consent (EAIC) arm. The electronic assisted informed consent web module is a professionally designed program by Emmi Solutions, LLC. Adolescents, if present and greater than 13 years of age, will undergo the program apart from their parent as a separate subgroup not included in the 100 randomized subjects. At time of endoscopy scheduling, the scheduler will ask the subjects if they would like to participate in the study. If interest is expressed the study coordinator or PI will contact the subject to explain the study and inform them of the study parameters. At time of phone contact, consent or assent via a verbal method will be performed. Once verbal consent is given by the subject or verbal assent by the adolescent subject they will follow the protocol. No incentives will be given to the subjects. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval will be obtained.

Between 24 and 48 hours prior to endoscopy, the participant will have the option to access the web-based module outside the hospital or through a hospital-based kiosk. The web address used is Just prior to starting the module, a five-minute electronic pre-intervention test will be given and its results recorded in an electronic database. This will gather demographic and pre-intervention state anxiety without personal identifying information. After the survey is complete, the educational module will be accessed. Upon completion, the subjects will print a confirmatory document of completion and a list of questions to hand to their physician at time of endoscopy. Hand written questions will also be permitted. Non-EAIC participants will perform a non-educational web program not related to gastroenterology and also have their endoscopy questions printed to give to their physician. The questions and confirmation sheet will also be presented to their physician at time of procedure. Participants will also have space to write further questions by hand on the form. The questions collected will be used to assess number and complexity of questions asked as influenced by the education program. The web module will record time duration taken for the program. After completing the program, the participants will report to the GI suite as previously scheduled. The procedure will occur without either the practitioner or nursing staff knowing in which arm of the study the participants are enrolled. After the questions are answered and formal GI endoscopy procedural consent is obtained, the question sheet will be deposited in a lock box in the endoscopy suite for review at a later time. Total time spent in the endoscopy suite will be recorded. Prior to the patient's endoscopy, but after formal consent is obtained, the participant will then take a ten minute electronic post-test to ascertain satisfaction (mGHAA-modified-Group Health Association of America Survey-9), change in state anxiety [s-STAI-(Spielberger-State Trait Anxiety Inventory (state section)], and change in understanding of consent parameters achieved. Satisfaction will be measured using the validated modified Group Health Association of America-9 Survey (mGHAA-9). It is a well-validated instrument used to measure patient satisfaction in adult endoscopy. Probing questions to evaluate the attainment of consent will be based on a modified survey taken from Woodrow's study titled, "How Thorough is the Process of Informed Consent Prior to Outpatient Gastroscopy?"(Consent-20)

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 148 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Care Provider)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Improving Informed Consent and Assent in Pediatric Endoscopy
Study Start Date : September 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2009

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Anxiety Endoscopy

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Electronic Assisted Consent
Standard procedural consent performed by pediatric gastroenterologist plus assistance from computerized emmi module.
Other: Emmi Pediatric Upper Endoscopy Patient Education Module
Emmi Pediatric Upper Endoscopy Patient Education Module as designed by EMMI SOLUTIONS, LLC
Other Names:
  • Pediatric Upper Endoscopy Patient Education Module
  • Patient Education Module
  • Upper Endoscopy Patient Education Module
  • Endoscopy Patient Education Module

No Intervention: Control Consent
Standard procedural consent as performed by pediatric gastroenterologists

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Attainment of Informed Consent as Measured by Consent Instrument (Consent-20) [ Time Frame: Every 1-2 months ]

    Units on a scale (score) as Measured by Consent 20 Instrument.

    20 questions administered on a laptop computer and answered in private. Questions 1-5: qualitative questions about recalling procedure, risks, benefits, etc. (correct or incorrectly scored 0 or 2 points), Questions 6-20: yes or no responses, measuring delivery, voluntariness, and understanding. Each scored 0 or 2 points.

    Measures theoretical attainment of a minimum standard of informed consent. Worse value: Zero Best Value: 40

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Subject (Parental) Satisfaction as Measured by Modified Group Health Association of America-9 Survey (mGHAA-9) [ Time Frame: Every 1-2 months ]
    Worse Value: 5 Best Value 45 Measures satisfaction on a scale per the mGHAA-9. 9 questions administered on a laptop in private.

  2. Subject (Parental) State Anxiety as Measured by the Spielberger-State Trait Anxiety Inventory (s-STAI) (State Section) [ Time Frame: 12-18 hours (Night before Endoscopy to Day of Endoscopy) ]
    s-STAI as a series of question administered by laptop computer in private. 20 questions answered on Likert 4 point scale that varies based on question type. Max score 80.

  3. Questions Asked by Subjects (Parents) [ Time Frame: Questions written by parents during the end of consent process (48-72 hours) ]
    Number of questions written down by family and asked of clinician. Question sheet given to nurse in endoscopy suite and deposited in a box.

  4. GI Suite Flow Efficiency Measured in 15 Minute Increments [ Time Frame: At completion of study ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Parent of child undergoing 1st, elective, outpatient, sedated, upper endoscopy (EGD)
  • Subject gives consent to participate
  • Child of parent does not have a planned endoscopy intervention.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Does not speak or understand English
  • Does not give consent to participate
  • Does not complete consent instrument at a minimum during study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00899392

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United States, Pennsylvania
Chidren's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Sponsors and Collaborators
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Midwestern University
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Principal Investigator: Petar Mamula, M.D. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Principal Investigator: Joel Friedlander, D.O., M.Be. Children's Hospital of Phildelphia
Study Chair: Greg Loeben, Ph.D. Midwestern University
Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Identifier: NCT00899392    
Other Study ID Numbers: 2008-6-6053
First Posted: May 12, 2009    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 30, 2013
Last Update Posted: July 30, 2013
Last Verified: July 2013
Keywords provided by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia:
Attainment of Informed Consent (Consent-20)
Procedural State Anxiety (STAI)
Subject Satisfaction (mGHAA-9)
Duration in Endoscopy Suite
Number of questions asked
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Anxiety Disorders
Mental Disorders