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Ambroxol Therapy for Patients With Type 1 Gaucher Disease and Suboptimal Response to Enzyme Replacement Therapy

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03950050
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : May 15, 2019
Last Update Posted : September 24, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shaare Zedek Medical Center

Brief Summary:

Ambroxol hydrochloride, an over-the-counter antitussive available in many markets , was identified as an interesting pharmacological chaperone. In addition to a mucolytic action, ambroxol has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Importantly, ambroxol therapy was found safe when given to pregnant women for prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome .

Thus, ambroxol, an oral available drug on the market, may be a safe option for GD patients with potential disease-specific efficacy and should be expanded into a clinical trial using higher doses and placebo-controlled design. The investigators propose to start with a phase II study for patients with type 1 GD and suboptimal response to ERT. In addition the investigators plan to open an international registry of patients with GD currently receiving ambroxol (off study).


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Gaucher Disease, Type 1 Drug: Ambroxol Phase 2

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Detailed Description:

Introduction:

Description of the Problem:

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) makes a significant impact on the clinical manifestations and quality of life of patients with Gaucher disease (GD) . The goals of therapy focus mainly on platelets, hemoglobin, spleen, liver, bones and growth parameters for children.

ERT is mostly effective in patients with type 1 GD; still some patients don't achieve normalization or near normalization of the therapeutic targets . Glucosylsphingosine (LysoGb1) is the most specific and sensitive, and hence is probably the best currently available GD biomarker. A level of LysoGB1 < 140 ng/ml is considered a marker for controlled GD (personal communication).

Patients with GD may also experience chronic fatigue that causes functional disability and adversely affects quality of life . The fatigue severity scale (FSS) is a 9-item tool; each item is scored on a scale from 1 to 7, with a mean score of 4 or higher considered to represent significant fatigue . Patients with GD have improvements in fatigue within 6 months of starting ERT, and that it may be among the first symptoms to show significant improvement. Using the FSS, no association was identified between fatigue and time on ERT (P = 0.57). In a survey of patients with Type 1 GD and physicians, patients ascribed greater importance to fatigue than other disease parameters, while physicians placed more emphasis on objective measures of visceral and hematologic disease manifestations.

B. Pharmacological chaperones:

The underlying pathology in GD is not only due to the lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide in the tissue macrophages. There is a broader spectrum of lysosomal dysfunction and various intracellular and molecular changes that could lead to additional disease manifestations that are not affected by ERT. In particular, the retention of the mutant glucocerebrosidase within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which causes ER stress, unfolding protein response (UPR) and early ER associated degradation (ERAD) . These ER related changes are the rationale behind the use of pharmacological chaperones which are capable of partially removing the misfolded proteins from the ER, thereby relieving ER stress, avoiding ERAD and preventing consequent complications . Pharmacological chaperones increase glucocerebrosidase activity by stabilizing the enzyme in the lysosome.

C. The Therapy to be Examined:

Ambroxol hydrochloride, an over-the-counter antitussive available in many markets, was identified as an interesting pharmacological chaperone. In addition to a mucolytic action, ambroxol has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties . Importantly, ambroxol therapy was found safe when given to pregnant women for prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. In skin fibroblasts derived from Type 1 and Type 2 GD patients, ambroxol increases both the lysosomal fraction and the enzymatic activity of several mutant glucocerebrosidase variants with low toxicity . Incubation of human induced pluripotent stem cell macrophages from patients with type I-III GD with ambroxol corrected the abnormal phenotypes of GD macrophages. Ambroxol, has a small molecule chaperone, has been shown in healthy nonhuman primates to cross the blood-brain barrier, and increase brain glucocerebrosidase activity . In Drosophila neuropathic model, ambroxol was show to alleviate the neuronopathic phenotype through reducing ER stress ].

The investigators have performed a pilot study to test the tolerability and efficacy of ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone in patients with symptomatic, type 1 GD who present with measurable disease parameters but are not receiving ERT in order to provide proof of concept and/or ascertain the suitability of ambroxol for a larger clinical trial [29] . The Israeli Ministry of Health Form 29c was employed to prescribe ambroxol for off-label use. Twelve patients were dispensed 2 capsules of 75 mg of ambroxol daily for 6 months. One patient withdrew because of a hypersensitivity reaction, one because of elective splenectomy. No patient experienced clinically relevant deterioration in disease parameters measured. One patient achieved a robust response relative to baseline: +16.2% hemoglobin; +32.9% platelets; -2.8% liver volume; and -14.4% spleen volume. Three patients elected to continue on ambroxol for a further 6 months: hemoglobin levels and liver volumes were relatively stable, but platelet counts further increased in the above patient (+52.6% from baseline) and spleen volumes decreased further in all three patients (-6.4%, -18.6%, and -23.4% from baseline) . More recently, a pilot study of ambroxol was done in five patients with neuronopathic GD in combination with enzyme replacement therapy [30]. High-dose oral Ambroxol had good safety and tolerability with clinical and laboratory signs of activity.

Thus, ambroxol, an oral available drug on the market, may be a safe option for GD patients with potential disease-specific efficacy and should be expanded into a clinical trial using higher doses and placebo-controlled design [31]. The investigators propose to start with a phase II study for patients with type 1 GD and suboptimal response to ERT. In addition the investigators plan to open an international registry of patients with GD currently receiving ambroxol (off study).


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Intervention Model Description:

The aim of this single arm, phase II study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding ambroxol to patients with type 1 GD and suboptimal response to ERT.

HYPOTHESIS The addition of ambroxol will improve the disease related symptoms and disease impact of patients with GD with suboptimal response to ERT.

Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Ambroxol Therapy for Patients With Type 1 Gaucher Disease and Suboptimal Response to Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Actual Study Start Date : March 1, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : March 1, 2021


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Ambroxol

Ambroxol therapy will be dosed up to 600 mg/day divided to twice a day starting 150 mg for the first month, 300 mg for the following month and 600 mg for the following month.

The study was conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice guidelines, and local laws and regulations.

Drug: Ambroxol

Ambroxol Hydrochloride therapy will be dosed up to 600 mg/day divided to twice a day starting 150 mg for the first month, 300 mg for the following month and 600 mg for the following month.

The study was conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice guidelines, and local laws and regulations.

Other Name: Ambroxol Hydrochloride




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Platelets count [ Time Frame: 12 months. ]
    Increase in platelet count

  2. bone mineral density evaluated by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) [ Time Frame: 12 months. ]
    Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD)

  3. Lyso-GB1 biomarker for Gaucher disease [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    decrease in Lyso-GB1.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Improve in PRO from baseline

  2. Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Improve in FSS from baseline



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

*Adult patients ≥ 18 years with type 1 GD and suboptimal response to ERT defined as one or more than one of the following: platelet count < 100 x 103/mm3 bone mineral density < -2 T score Lyso-GB1 > 200 ng/ml.

*No change in dose or preparation of ERT in the last 12 months (Except for Naive patients)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with comorbidity that may impact on the primary and/or secondary endpoint.
  • Pregnant women will be excluded from the study.
  • Inability to cooperate with the study procedure
  • Hypersensitivity or any other contraindication listed in the local labeling of ambroxol
  • Refusal of patients to participate in the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03950050


Contacts
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Contact: Joleen Istaiti, B.Sc. +97226555143 joleenist@szmc.org.il
Contact: Ari Zimran, MD +97226555143 azimran@gmail.com

Locations
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Israel
Shaare Zedek Medical Center Recruiting
Jerusalem, Israel
Contact: Joleen Istaiti, BS.c    +97226555143    joleenist@szmc.org.il   
Contact: Ari Zimran, MD    +97226555143    azimran@gmail.com   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Shaare Zedek Medical Center
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Ari Zimran Ari Zimran - Shaare Zedek

Publications of Results:
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Responsible Party: Shaare Zedek Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03950050     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 0005-18-SZMC
First Posted: May 15, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 24, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Gaucher Disease
Sphingolipidoses
Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Nervous System
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn
Brain Diseases, Metabolic
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Lipidoses
Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
Lipid Metabolism Disorders
Ambroxol
Expectorants
Respiratory System Agents