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Metabolism, Breastmilk, and Microbiome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03522597
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : May 11, 2018
Last Update Posted : March 2, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University of Oklahoma
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Minnesota

Brief Summary:
The objective of this pilot study is to compare breast milk composition in mothers of three different metabolic states (normal weight, obese, and gestational diabetic) and to determine the extent to which breastmilk components are transmitted to the infant gut and are associated with the anthropometric and body composition changes in their infants during the first 6 months of life. It is hypothesized that 1) different maternal metabolic states will be associated with differences in breastmilk microbial communities and breastmilk biochemical features, 2) differences in these breastmilk biomarkers will be transmitted to infants and 3) breastmilk microbial and metabolic features will be associated with infant growth outcomes.

Condition or disease
Obesity Diabetes, Gestational

Detailed Description:

The incidence of both obesity and diabetes are on a staggering rise. Many studies suggest that by 2030, 40-50% of the population will be obese. The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is also increasing, and was recently reported to be 9%. GDM increases risk of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in their children, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well defined.

The benefits of breastfeeding are numerous, including protection from sudden infant death and infection, positive cognitive outcomes, reduced prematurity complications, and decreased risk of cancer, as well as some evidence of protection against child obesity. One area that has yet to be thoroughly explored is whether there are differences in breast milk composition in women with diabetes as compared to non-diabetic women after adjusting for obesity and other diabetes co-morbidities, and how these differences could affect infant metabolic health and body composition. Experimental studies argue strongly for a causal relationship of the gut microbiome to the risk of obesity and diabetes. Breast milk strongly shapes the gut microbiome, as it contains unique oligosaccharides as well as hormones and immunologic factors that cultivate the growth of specific microbiota in the infant gut. Indeed over 90% of early infant fecal bacteria are Bifidobacteria, where in most formula-fed infants Bifidobacteria are non-detectable, which has been linked to the rapid growth and greater adiposity in formula-fed versus breastmilk-fed infants. Given that most pregnant women in the United States are now either overweight, obese, or diabetic, our study has high public health significance in that it seeks to understand how maternal metabolic factors such as these hinder the development of a healthy gut microbiome during the critical period of infancy.

In this study, the following study questions will be examined:1) does maternal metabolic state relate to the milk microbiome (bacterial and fungal diversity and abundance relationships, and microbiome function) and how they are transmitted to the infant gut? 2) does maternal metabolic state relate to the concentration of appetite and growth-regulating hormones and cytokines present in breast milk?; 3) are maternal serum concentrations of hormones and milk microbiomes associated with each other?; and 4) are milk hormones and/or milk microbiomes related to infant growth and body composition in the first 6 months of life?

Amplicon-based and deep (shotgun) metagenomic sequencing will be utilized to characterize species and strain level characteristics of maternal milk and infant fecal microbiomes. ELISA assays will be used to quantify adipose-tissue derived hormones (leptin, adiponectin) and immune factors (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α) as well as insulin/growth axis hormones (insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3) in breast milk. Infant body composition will be assessed using air displacement plethysmography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.

The above work will involve new recruitment enrollment, and pregnancy data collection from 50 diabetic mothers recruited through the Maternal Fetal Medicine and Women's Health Specialists at M Health. The pregnant non-diabetic (normal weight and obese) woman cohorts (and their infants and samples) for this study already exist as part of Clinical Trial NCT03301753 (Maternal Obesity, Breast Milk Composition, and Infant Growth (MILK) study), which is currently in the sample collection phase. The current study will form the first comprehensive comparison of multiple aspects of breastmilk composition in women with pregnancy diabetes as compared to non-diabetic women.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 300 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Maternal Metabolism, Breast Milk Composition, and Infant Outcomes: The 4M Project
Actual Study Start Date : June 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 1, 2023

Group/Cohort
Normal weight
Normal weight (BMI) women and their infants
Obese
Obese (BMI) women and their infants
Diabetic
Women with gestational diabetes and their infants



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Breastmilk and infant microbiomes [ Time Frame: 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum ]
    Change in the diversity and abundance of breast milk and infant gut bacterial and fungal species and strains, and functional microbiome profiles


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Hormones in breastmilk [ Time Frame: 1 and 3 months postpartum ]
    Change in breastmilk concentrations of appetite and growth regulating hormones (leptin, insulin, adiponectin) and proteins (IGF-1, IGFBP3, CRP, IL-6) from milk.

  2. Hormones and cytokines in maternal serum [ Time Frame: At time of delivery (time 0) ]
    Maternal serum concentrations of appetite and growth regulating hormones (leptin, insulin, adiponectin) and proteins (IGF-1, IGFBP3, CRP, IL-6), and cytokines.

  3. Hormones and cytokines in infant serum [ Time Frame: At time of delivery (time 0) and 6 months postpartum ]
    Change in the concentrations of appetite and growth regulating hormones (leptin, insulin, adiponectin) and proteins (IGF-1, IGFBP3, CRP, IL-6), and cytokines from birth to age 6 months.


Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
Maternal serum and breast milk, infant feces.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
(for new enrollment of 50 pregnant women with gestational diabetes and their infants. Enrollment of normal weight and obese cohort comparators already accomplished under ClinicalTrial NCT03301753) Recruitment of women with gestational diabetes will be conducted at the University of Minnesota Medical Center (UMMC) Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine and Women's Health Specialists Clinics (Minneapolis, MN) during an antenatal clinic visit.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

(For new enrollment of 50 pregnant women with gestational diabetes and their infants. Enrollment of normal weight and obese cohort comparators already accomplished under ClinicalTrial NCT03301753):

  1. Pregnant women
  2. age 21-45 at time of delivery
  3. report during enrollment procedures that they have social support for and intention to exclusively breastfeed for at least 3 months (breastfeeding intentions are known to be correlated with actual behavior), and if parity >1, that they successfully breastfed after a previous pregnancy for at least 3 months
  4. singleton pregnancy
  5. known gestational diabetes Definition of Gestational Diabetes: 1) an elevated glucose challenge test >200 mg/dL or 2) two abnormal values on the glucose tolerance test according to Carpenter-Coustan criteria.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. alcohol consumption >1 drink per week during pregnancy/lactation
  2. tobacco consumption during pregnancy/lactation,
  3. inability to speak/understand English
  4. known congenital metabolic, endocrine disease, or congenital illness affecting infant feeding
  5. planned delivery at a site other than the University of Minnesota Medical Center- West Bank campus.
  6. preexisting diabetes

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03522597


Locations
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United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55454
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Minnesota
University of Oklahoma
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Cheryl A Gale, M.D. University of Minnesota
Principal Investigator: Ellen W Demerath, Ph.D. University of Minnesota
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Responsible Party: University of Minnesota
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03522597    
Other Study ID Numbers: OBGYN-2018-26409
R01HD080444 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: May 11, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 2, 2022
Last Verified: March 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by University of Minnesota:
Obesity
Gestational Diabetes
Breast Milk
Microbiome
Infant Growth
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes, Gestational
Pregnancy Complications
Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases