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CAR T Cell Receptor Immunotherapy Targeting EGFRvIII for Patients With Malignant Gliomas Expressing EGFRvIII

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01454596
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 19, 2011
Results First Posted : August 21, 2019
Last Update Posted : August 21, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Steven Rosenberg, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Brief Summary:

Background:

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surgery Branch has developed an experimental therapy for treating patients with gliomas that involves taking white blood cells from the patient, growing them in the laboratory in large numbers, genetically modifying these specific cells with a type of virus (retrovirus) to attack only the tumor cells, and then giving the cells back to the patient. This type of therapy is called gene transfer. In this protocol, we are modifying the patient's white blood cells with a retrovirus that has the gene for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII incorporated in the retrovirus.

Objective:

The purpose of this study is to determine a safe number of these cells to infuse and to see if these particular tumor-fighting cells (anti-EGFRvIII cells) are a safe and effective treatment for advanced gliomas.

Eligibility:

- Adults age 18-70 with malignant glioma expressing the EGFRvIII molecule.

Design:

Work up stage: Patients will be seen as an outpatient at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical Center and undergo a history and physical examination, scans, x-rays, lab tests, and other tests as needed

Leukapheresis: If the patients meet all of the requirements for the study they will undergo leukapheresis to obtain white blood cells to make the anti-EGFRvIII cells. {Leukapheresis is a common procedure, which removes only the white blood cells from the patient.}

Treatment: Once their cells have grown, the patients will be admitted to the hospital for the conditioning chemotherapy, the anti-EGFRvIII cells, and aldesleukin. They will stay in the hospital for about 4 weeks for the treatment.

Follow up: Patients will return to the clinic for a physical exam, review of side effects, lab tests, and scans every month for the first year, and then every 1-2 months as long as their tumors are shrinking. Follow up visits will take up to 2 days.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Malignant Glioma Glioblastoma Brain Cancer Gliosarcoma Biological: Epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFRv)III Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced PBL Drug: Aldesleukin Drug: Fludarabine Drug: Cyclophosphamide Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:

BACKGROUND:

- Patients with recurrent gliomas have very limited treatment options. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

(EGFRvIII) is the most common mutant variant of EGFR and is present in 24-67% of patients with glioblastoma.

  • EGFRvIII expression promotes oncogenesis and is associated with poor prognosis.
  • EGFRvIII is not expressed in normal tissue and is an attractive target for immunotherapy.
  • We have constructed a retroviral vector that contains a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that recognizes the EGFRvIII tumor antigen, which can be used to mediate genetic transfer of this CAR with high efficiency without the need to perform any selection.

OBJECTIVES:

Primary Objectives

  • To evaluate the safety of the administration of anti-EGFRvIII CAR engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients receiving the non-myeloablative, lymphodepleting preparative regimen and aldesleukin.
  • Determine the six month progression free survival of patients receiving anti-EGFRvIII CAR-engineered peripheral blood lymphocytes and aldesleukin following a nonmyeloablative, lymphodepleting preparative regimen.

ELIGIBILITY:

  • Histologically proven glioblastoma or gliosarcoma expressing EGFRvIII as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • Failed prior standard treatment with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy
  • Karnofsky performance score (KPS) greater than or equal to 60
  • Cardiac, pulmonary and laboratory parameters within acceptable limits

DESIGN:

  • The study will be conducted using a Phase I/II design.
  • Patients will receive a non-myeloablative, lymphodepleting preparative regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by intravenous infusion of ex vivo tumorreactive, CAR gene-transduced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plus intravenous (IV) aldesleukin.
  • Once the maximum tolerated cell dose (MTD) has been determined, the study will proceed to the phase II portion.
  • In the phase II portion of the trial, patients will be accrued to two cohorts:

    • Patients with recurrent malignant glioma receiving steroids at the time of treatment.
    • Patients with recurrent malignant glioma not receiving steroids at the time of treatment.
  • A total of 107 patients may be enrolled over a period of 7 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 18 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Study of the Safety and Feasibility of Administering T Cells Expressing Anti-EGFRvIII Chimeric Antigen Receptor to Patients With Malignant Gliomas Expressing EGFRvIII
Actual Study Start Date : May 16, 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 1, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : January 17, 2019


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1/Phase I Arm
Non-myeloablative lymphodepleting preparative regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine + escalating doses of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRv)III Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) + aldesleukin
Biological: Epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFRv)III Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced PBL
Day 0: Cells will be infused intravenously over 20-30 minutes. Patients will receive two cell doses, 2 hours apart.

Drug: Aldesleukin
Aldeskeukin 72,000 IU /kg intravenous (IV) or 720,000 IU /kg IV (based on total body weight) over 15 minutes every eight hours (+/- 1 hour) beginning within 24 hours of cell infusion and continuing for up to 5 days (maximum 15 doses).
Other Name: Proleukin

Drug: Fludarabine
Days -7 to -3: Fludarabine 25 mg /m(2)/day intravenous piggyback (IVPB) daily over 30 minutes for 5 days.
Other Name: Fludara

Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Days -7 and -6: Cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day X 2 days IV in 250 ml dextrose 5% in water (D5W) with Mesna 15 mg/kg /day X 2 days over 1 hr.
Other Name: Cytoxan

Experimental: 2/Phase II Arm
Non-myeloablative lymphodepleting preparative regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine + maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of anti-EGFRvIII CAR transduced PBL established in Phase I + aldesleukin
Biological: Epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFRv)III Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) transduced PBL
Day 0: Cells will be infused intravenously over 20-30 minutes. Patients will receive two cell doses, 2 hours apart.

Drug: Aldesleukin
Aldeskeukin 72,000 IU /kg intravenous (IV) or 720,000 IU /kg IV (based on total body weight) over 15 minutes every eight hours (+/- 1 hour) beginning within 24 hours of cell infusion and continuing for up to 5 days (maximum 15 doses).
Other Name: Proleukin

Drug: Fludarabine
Days -7 to -3: Fludarabine 25 mg /m(2)/day intravenous piggyback (IVPB) daily over 30 minutes for 5 days.
Other Name: Fludara

Drug: Cyclophosphamide
Days -7 and -6: Cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day X 2 days IV in 250 ml dextrose 5% in water (D5W) with Mesna 15 mg/kg /day X 2 days over 1 hr.
Other Name: Cytoxan




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Treatment Related Adverse Events [ Time Frame: From 4 weeks after cell infusion up to 77 days ]
    Aggregate of all adverse events ≥Grade 3 that are possibly, probably, and definitely related to treatment. Adverse events were assessed by the Common Terminology Criteria in Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0). Per CTCAE, Grade 3 adverse events are severe, Grade 4 is life threatening, and Grade 5 is death.

  2. Progression Free Survival [ Time Frame: Time from the date of registration to the date of first observation of progressive disease up to 6 months after end of treatment ]
    Progression was assessed by the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria and is defined as the circumstance when the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is ranked -2 (definitely worse) or -3 (development of a new lesion).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Patients With an Objective Response [ Time Frame: 4 weeks after cell infusion and monthly as feasible up to 12 months ]
    Objective response was assessed by comparison with baseline dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with perfusion using Neuro-oncology Working Group proposed guidelines. Complete Response is disappearance of all measurable and non-measurable disease for at least 4 weeks. Partial Response is >/= 50% decrease in lesions for at least 4 weeks. Stable Disease does not meet the criteria for complete response, partial response or progression and requires stable lesions compared with baseline. Progression is >/= 25% increase in lesions.

  2. Circulating Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR+) Cells in Peripheral Blood at 1 Month Post Treatment [ Time Frame: 1 month post transplant ]
    CAR and vector presence were quantitated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples using established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques

  3. Number of Participants With Serious and Non-serious Adverse Events Assessed by the Common Terminology Criteria in Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0) [ Time Frame: 51 dys Grp A, Cohort 1; Cohort 2:68 dys; Cohort 3:40 dys; Grp B, Cohort 1:67 dys; Cohort 2:48 dys; Cohort 3:55 dys; Cohort 4: 46 dys; Cohort 5:147 dys; C. Ster/No Ster Grp, Cohort 6:12 mos, 26 dys; Cohort 7:11 mos, 18 dys; Cohort 8:7 dys; Cohort 9:70 dys. ]
    Here is the count of participants with serious and non-serious adverse events assessed by the Common Terminology Criteria in Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0). A non-serious adverse event is any untoward medical occurrence. A serious adverse event is an adverse event or suspected adverse reaction that results in death, a life threatening adverse drug experience, hospitalization, disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions, congenital anomaly/birth defect or important medical events that jeopardize the patient or subject and may require medical or surgical intervention to prevent one of the previous outcomes mentioned.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

-INCLUSION CRITERIA:

  1. Patients with histologically proven glioblastomas or gliosarcomas that express epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFRv)III as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Laboratory of Pathology.
  2. Patients must have progression of disease after radiotherapy (including patients that undergo surgery for recurrent disease and are rendered no evidence of disease (NED)). This includes recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) after receiving all standard first-line treatment, including surgery (if feasible due to neurosurgical and neuro-anatomical considerations) and adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy.
  3. Patients must either not be receiving steroids, or be on a stable dose of steroids for at least five days prior to registration.
  4. Age greater than or equal to 18 years and less than or equal to age 70 years.
  5. Ability of subject to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document.
  6. Willing to sign a durable power of attorney.
  7. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) greater than or equal to 60
  8. Patients of both genders must be willing to practice birth control from the time of enrollment on this study and for four months after treatment.
  9. Women of child-bearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test because of the potentially dangerous effects of the treatment on the fetus.
  10. Serology

    • Seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. (The experimental treatment being evaluated in this protocol depends on an intact immune system. Patients who are HIV seropositive may have decreased immune-competence and thus be less responsive to the experimental treatment and more susceptible to its toxicities.)
    • Seronegative for hepatitis B antigen, and seronegative for hepatitis C antibody. If hepatitis C antibody test is positive, then patients must be tested for the presence of antigen by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and be Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) negative.
  11. Hematology

    • White blood cell (WBC) greater than or equal to 3000/mm(3)
    • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) greater than or equal to 1000/mm(3) without the support of filgrastim
    • Platelet count greater than or equal to 100,000/mm(3)
    • Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 8.0 g/dl. Subjects may be transfused to reach this cut-off.
  12. Chemistry

    • Serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) less than or equal to 2.5 x ULN
    • Serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.6 mg/dl
    • Total bilirubin less than or equal to 1.5 mg/dl, except in patients with Gilbert's Syndrome, who must have a total bilirubin equal to or less than 3.0 mg/dl.
  13. Patients must be at least 4 weeks from radiation therapy. Additionally, patients must be at least 6 weeks from nitrosoureas, 4 weeks from temozolomide, 3 weeks from procarbazine, 2 weeks from vincristine and 4 weeks from last bevacizumab administration. Patients must be at least 4 weeks from other cytotoxic therapies not listed above and 2 weeks for non-cytotoxic agents (e.g., interferon, tamoxifen) including investigative agents. All toxicities from prior therapies should be resolved to Common Terminology Criteria in Adverse Events (CTCAE) less than or equal to grade 1 (except for toxicities such as alopecia, or vitiligo).
  14. Subject's must be co-enrolled on protocol 03-C-0277

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

  1. A prior history of gliadel implantation in the past six months..
  2. Women of child-bearing potential who are pregnant or breast feeding because of the potentially dangerous effects of the treatment on the fetus or infant.
  3. Active systemic infections, requiring anti-infective treatment, coagulation disorders, or any other active or uncompensated major medical illnesses
  4. Any form of primary immunodeficiency (such as Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease).
  5. Concurrent opportunistic infections (The experimental treatment being evaluated in this protocol depends on an intact immune system. Patients who have decreased immune competence may be less responsive to the experimental treatment and more susceptible to its toxicities).
  6. History of severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction to cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, or aldesleukin.
  7. History of coronary revascularization or ischemic symptoms.
  8. Clinically significant hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, including transient ischemic attacks and other central nervous system bleeding in the preceding 6 months that were not related to glioma surgery. History of prior intratumoral bleeding is not an exclusion criteria; patients who with history of prior intratumoral bleeding, however, need to undergo a non-contrast head computed tomography (CT) to exclude acute bleeding.
  9. Other concomitant anti-cancer therapy except corticosteroids.
  10. Any patient known to have left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than or equal to 45%.
  11. Documented forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) less than or equal to 60% predicted tested in patients with:

    • A prolonged history of cigarette smoking (greater than or equal to 20 pack-year smoking history, with cessation within the past two years).
    • Symptoms of respiratory dysfunction
  12. Patients who are receiving any other investigational agents.
  13. Documented LVEF less than or equal to 45% tested in patients:

    • Age greater than or equal to 65 years
    • With clinically significant atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias including but not limited to: atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, second or third degree heart block or have a history of ischemic heart disease and/or chest pain.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01454596


Locations
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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Steven A Rosenberg, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Steven Rosenberg, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI):
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] July 10, 2018


Additional Information:
Publications:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Steven Rosenberg, M.D., Principal Investigator, National Cancer Institute (NCI)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01454596     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 110266
11-C-0266
First Posted: October 19, 2011    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 21, 2019
Last Update Posted: August 21, 2019
Last Verified: August 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Steven Rosenberg, M.D., National Cancer Institute (NCI):
Cell Therapy
Gene Therapy
Immunotherapy
Brain Cancer
Glioma
Glioblastoma
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Glioblastoma
Glioma
Gliosarcoma
Brain Neoplasms
Astrocytoma
Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Nervous System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Aldesleukin
Cyclophosphamide
Fludarabine
Fludarabine phosphate
Mitogens
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action