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Capecitabine With or Without Sunitinib Malate as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer of the Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00891878
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 1, 2009
Results First Posted : July 24, 2018
Last Update Posted : July 24, 2018
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as capecitabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Sunitinib malate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the tumor. It is not yet known whether capecitabine is more effective when given alone or together with sunitinib malate in treating patients with metastatic esophageal cancer or gastroesophageal junction cancer.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase II trial is studying how well capecitabine works compared with capecitabine given together with sunitinib malate as first-line therapy in treating patients with metastatic cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction Esophageal Cancer Drug: capecitabine Drug: sunitinib malate Phase 2

Detailed Description:



  • Compare the progression-free survival of elderly (age ≥ 65 years) and/or poor performance status patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction treated with capecitabine with verus without sunitinib malate.
  • Report other indicators of efficacy with these regimens, including the confirmed response rate, overall survival, time to tumor progression, duration of response, and time to treatment failure.
  • Compare the adverse event profiles of these regimens in these patients.


  • Explore whether certain key proteins associated with anti-VEGF therapy are able to predict tumor response.
  • Bank paraffin-embedded tissue blocks or slides, and blood products for future studies.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study. Patients are stratified according to gender (male vs female), ECOG performance status (0 vs 1 vs 2), and age (≥ 65 years vs < 65 years). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.

  • Arm I: Patients receive oral capecitabine twice daily on days 1-14. Patients experiencing disease progression may crossover to arm II at the physician's discretion.
  • Arm II: Patients receive oral capecitabine as in arm 1 and oral sunitinib malate once daily on days 1-21.

In both arms, courses repeat every 21 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Tumor tissue samples are collected at baseline for evaluation of protein markers as possible predictors of tumor response to this regimen. Samples are analyzed by IHC for expression levels of markers

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed periodically for 3 years.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 12 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Phase II Trial of Sunitinib Plus Capecitabine Versus Capecitabine Alone (With the Potential for Crossover) for Elderly and/or Poor Performance Status Patients With Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction
Study Start Date : August 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2013

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm I
Patients receive oral capecitabine twice daily on days 1-14. Patients experiencing disease progression may crossover to arm II at the physician's discretion.
Drug: capecitabine
Given orally

Experimental: Arm II
Patients receive oral capecitabine as in arm 1 and oral sunitinib malate once daily on days 1-21.
Drug: capecitabine
Given orally

Drug: sunitinib malate
Given orally

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Comparison of Progression-free Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    The primary analysis will be a comparison of Arm A to Arm B using a one-sided log-rank test between the 2 Kaplan-Meier curves. All patients meeting the eligibility criteria, who started treatment will be considered evaluable for the primary endpoint. If a patient is still alive 3 years after registration, no further follow-up is required. Progression is defined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors Criteria (RECIST v1.0), as a 20% increase in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions, or a measurable increase in a non-target lesion, or the appearance of new lesions

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response Rate (Complete Response or Partial Response) [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    A confirmed tumor response is defined to be a CR or PR noted as the objective status on 2 consecutive evaluations ≥4 weeks apart. Confirmed tumor response will be evaluated using the first 6 cycles of treatment. All patients meeting the eligibility criteria who have signed a consent form and have begun treatment will be evaluable for response. The confirmed response rates between the 2 arms will be compared using a Chi-Square or Fisher's Exact test. Complete Response (CR): Disappearance of all target lesions. Partial Response (PR): At least a 30% decrease in the sum of the LD of target lesions taking as reference the baseline sum LD.

  2. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Overall survival is defined as the time from randomization to death due to any cause. The distribution of overall survival will be estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier.

  3. Time to Disease Progression [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Time to disease progression is defined as the time from randomization to the earliest date documentation of disease progression occurs. If a patient dies without a documentation of disease progression, the patient will be considered to have had tumor progression at the time of their death unless there is sufficient documented evidence to conclude no progression occurred prior to death. The distribution of time-to-progression will be estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier.

  4. Time to Treatment Failure [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Time to treatment failure is defined to be the time from the date of randomization to the date at which the patient is removed from treatment due to progression, adverse events, or refusal.

  5. Duration of Response [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years ]
    Duration of response is defined for all evaluable patients who have achieved an objective response as the date at which the patient's earliest best objective status is first noted to be either a CR or PR to the earliest date progression is documented.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction

    • Metastatic disease
    • Unresectable disease with no curative options
  • Measurable disease with ≥ 1 lesion whose longest diameter can be accurately measured as ≥ 2.0 cm by conventional techniques or ≥ 1.0 cm by spiral CT
  • Not a candidate for a conventional multi-drug chemotherapy regimen with fairly standard dosing (i.e., patient is able to tolerate at least 80% of standard dosing)

    • Patients who have been offered and declined conventional multi-drug chemotherapy are eligible
  • No known CNS metastases


  • ECOG performance status (PS) 0-2 and age ≥ 65 years OR PS 2 and age ≥ 18 years but < 65 years
  • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500/mm^3
  • Platelet count ≥ 100,000/mm^3
  • Total bilirubin normal
  • Alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Creatinine ≤ 1.5 times ULN
  • Creatinine clearance ≥ 60mL/min
  • AST and ALT ≤ 2.5 times ULN (≤ 5 times ULN in the presence of liver metastases)
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception
  • Willing to provide tissue samples for central review and research purposes
  • Able to swallow pills
  • No immunocompromised patients (other than related to the use of corticosteroids), including patients known to be HIV-positive
  • No co-morbid systemic illnesses or other severe concurrent disease that, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for this study or interfere significantly with the proper assessment of safety and toxicity of the prescribed regimens
  • No uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, any of the following:

    • Ongoing or active infection
    • Symptomatic congestive heart failure
    • Unstable angina pectoris
    • Cardiac arrhythmia
    • Psychiatric illness or social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • No NYHA class III or IV heart failure
  • No uncontrolled hypertension except at the discretion of treating oncologist
  • No other active malignancy except for nonmelanoma skin cancer or carcinoma in situ of the cervix
  • No known dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPD)


  • No prior chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, or biological therapy for recurrent or metastatic cancer

    • Prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy are allowed if they had been administered as adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy and a complete surgical resection of the original cancer had been achieved
  • No prior sunitinib malate
  • No prior radiotherapy to > 30% of the marrow cavity at any time
  • More then 4 weeks since prior major surgery
  • At least 12 days since prior and no concurrent CYP3A4 inducers, including rifampin, rifabutin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, St. John's wort, efavirenz, and tipranavir
  • At least 7 days since prior and no concurrent CYP3A4 inhibitors, including azole antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), clarithromycin, erythromycin, diltiazem, verapamil, HIV protease inhibitors (indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, nelfinavir), and delavirdine
  • No other concurrent specific treatment (other than hormonal therapy) in patients with a history of prior malignancy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00891878

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Sponsors and Collaborators
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Study Chair: Aminah Jatoi, MD Mayo Clinic
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Responsible Party: Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology Identifier: NCT00891878    
Other Study ID Numbers: NCCTG-N0747
NCI-2011-01920 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trials Reporting System) )
CDR0000641212 ( Registry Identifier: PDQ (Physician Data Query) )
First Posted: May 1, 2009    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 24, 2018
Last Update Posted: July 24, 2018
Last Verified: June 2018
Keywords provided by Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology:
adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction
recurrent esophageal cancer
stage IV esophageal cancer
stage III esophageal cancer
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Esophageal Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Digestive System Diseases
Esophageal Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Growth Inhibitors
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors