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Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss: The OPTIMAL Trial (OPTIMAL)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00597935
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 18, 2008
Results First Posted : October 22, 2020
Last Update Posted : October 22, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NICHD Pelvic Floor Disorders Network

Brief Summary:

Pelvic organ prolapse is common among women with a prevalence that has been estimated to be as high as 30%. Pelvic organ prolapse often involves a combination of support defects involving the anterior, posterior and/or apical vaginal segments. While the anterior vaginal wall is the segment most likely to demonstrate recurrent prolapse after reconstructive surgery, reoperations are highest among those who require apical suspension procedures with or without repair of other vaginal segments (12%-33%). Despite the substantial health impact, there is a paucity of high quality evidence to support different practices in the management of prolapse, particularly surgery. Thus, the objectives of the Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss (OPTIMAL) Trial are:

  1. to compare sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) to uterosacral vaginal vault ligament suspension (ULS); and
  2. to assess the role of perioperative behavioral therapy/pelvic muscle training (PMT) in women undergoing vaginal surgery for apical or uterine prolapse and stress urinary incontinence.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Procedure: SSLF Procedure: ULS Behavioral: PMT Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Many women develop pelvic organ prolapse over the course of their lives. Pelvic organ prolapse is the downward descent of the pelvic organs (which include the uterus, bladder and bowel) into the vagina. Researchers estimate that between 7-10% of women will require surgery for prolapse sometime in their lifetime. Many will have more than one operation for the prolapse. Because this is such a common problem, the investigators in the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network strive to offer women the best treatment options. However, there were not enough carefully designed and conducted research studies to help guide them in this direction.

Women who are planning surgery for apical vaginal prolapse often experience bladder and bowel symptoms, as well as pressure and a bulge. These symptoms might include urinary leakage (urinary incontinence), urinary urgency (a sudden strong desire to urinate with fear that leakage may occur) or frequent urination, difficulty starting to urinate or perhaps a slow weak urinary stream, as well as accidental bowel leakage (fecal incontinence). After surgery, bladder and bowel symptoms may get better, get worse, or stay the same as before surgery. Sometimes new symptoms can start after surgery even if they weren't present before surgery.

The OPTIMAL study was designed to compare two commonly performed vaginal surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse. One is the sacrospinous ligament fixation, called SSLF for short. The other is the uterosacral ligament suspension, called ULS. Both surgeries involve attaching the top of the vagina, which has fallen down, to internal ligaments in the pelvis in order to resuspend the vagina and correct the prolapse.

The investigators were also interested in studying how the surgeries altered bladder and bowel symptoms. They had seen in other studies that behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy (PMT) is an effective therapy for stress and urge urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, and other pelvic floor disorders. It is relatively easy to perform, and has rare side effects. They wondered if PMT around the time of surgery might further improve these symptoms.

The OPTIMAL study has two main purposes:

  1. To find out which type of surgery, SSLF or ULS, has better results when used to repair prolapse of the top of the vagina,
  2. To find out whether or not doing pelvic muscle exercises and behavioral changes around the time of surgery will affect both bladder and bowel symptoms after surgery, and the success of the prolapse repair.

Four Hundred women were enrolled into the OPTIMAL study, from January 2008 to May 2011. These women were randomly assigned to receive either the SSLF or the ULS surgery. They were randomly assigned to either receive the PMT training with a therapist before and after surgery or to not receive this therapy. So women fell into one of four groups:

  1. SSLF plus PMT
  2. ULS plus PMT
  3. SSLF without PMT
  4. ULS without PMT

Women in this study were followed closely at regular intervals for two years after surgery.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 374 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss: The OPTIMAL Trial: A Randomized Trial of Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation (SSLF) Versus Uterosacral Ligament Suspension (ULS) With and Without Perioperative Behavioral Therapy/Pelvic Muscle Training
Study Start Date : February 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: SSLF and PMT
Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation (SSLF) and Pelvic Muscle Training & Exercises (PMT)
Procedure: SSLF
sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF)

Behavioral: PMT
Pelvic muscle training and exercises (PMT)

Experimental: ULS and PMT
Uterosacral Vaginal Vault Ligament Suspension (ULS) and Pelvic Muscle Training & Exercises (PMT)
Procedure: ULS
uterosacral vaginal vault ligament suspension (ULS)

Behavioral: PMT
Pelvic muscle training and exercises (PMT)

Experimental: SSLF without PMT
Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation (SSLF) without Pelvic Muscle Training & Exercises (PMT)
Procedure: SSLF
sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF)

Experimental: ULS without PMT
Uterosacral Vaginal Vault Ligament Suspension (ULS) without Pelvic Muscle Training & Exercises (PMT)
Procedure: ULS
uterosacral vaginal vault ligament suspension (ULS)




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Surgical Success [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    The absence of the following: (1) descent of the vaginal apex more than one-third into the vaginal canal; (2) anterior or posterior vaginal wall descent beyond the hymen; (3) bothersome vaginal bulge symptoms as indicated by an affirmative response to either 'Do you usually have a sensation of bulging or protrusion from the vaginal area?' or 'Do you usually have a bulge or something falling out that you can see or feel in the vaginal area?' in the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and any response other than 'not at all' to the question 'How much does this bother you?'; or (4) re-treatment for prolapse by either surgery or pessary.

  2. Anatomic Failure [ Time Frame: 24 months ]
    Anatomic failure is defined by one of the following: descent of the vaginal apex more than one-third into the vaginal canal, anterior or posterior vaginal wall descent beyond the hymen, or re-treatment for prolapse.

  3. Urinary Distress Inventory at 6 Months [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory is a validated, self-reported instrument used to evaluate pelvic floor symptoms. It consists of 3 scales: 1. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI, with 3 subscales), 2. Colorectal Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI, with 4 subscales), and 3. Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI, with 3 subscales). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all questions answered by 25 for the subscales and then adding the subscales. The range of responses for the UDI is: 0-300 with 0 (least distress) to 300 (most distress). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change From Baseline: Urinary Distress Inventory [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory is a validated, self-reported instrument used to evaluate pelvic floor symptoms. It consists of 3 scales: 1. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI, with 3 subscales), 2. Colorectal Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI, with 4 subscales), and 3. Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI, with 3 subscales). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all questions answered by 25 for the subscales and then adding the subscales. The range of responses for the UDI is: 0-300 with 0 (least distress) to 300 (most distress). Change = (24 Month Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  2. Change From Baseline: Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory is a validated, self-reported instrument used to evaluate pelvic floor symptoms. It consists of 3 scales: 1. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI, with 3 subscales), 2. Colorectal Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI, with 4 subscales), and 3. Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI, with 3 subscales). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all questions answered by 25 for the subscales and then adding the subscales. The range of responses for the POPDI is: 0-300 with 0 (least distress) to 300 (most distress). Change = (24 Month Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  3. Change From Baseline: Colorectal Anal Distress Inventory [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory is a validated, self-reported instrument used to evaluate pelvic floor symptoms. It consists of 3 scales: 1. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI, with 3 subscales), 2. Colorectal Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI, with 4 subscales), and 3. Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI, with 3 subscales). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all questions answered by 25 for the subscales and then adding the subscales. The range of responses for the CRADI is: 0-400 with 0 (least distress) to 400 (most distress). Change = (24 Month Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  4. Urinary Impact Questionnaire Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire measuring the impact of bladder, bowel, and vaginal symptoms on a woman's daily activities, relationships and emotions is composed of 3 scales: the Urinary Impact Questionnaire (UIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire (POPIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), and the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all answered questions for a subscale by 100 divided by 3. The subscales are then added together. The range of responses is: 0-400 with 0 (least negative impact) to 400 (most negative impact). Change = (24 Month Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  5. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire measuring the impact of bladder, bowel, and vaginal symptoms on a woman's daily activities, relationships and emotions is composed of 3 scales: the Urinary Impact Questionnaire (UIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire (POPIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), and the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all answered questions for a subscale by 100 divided by 3. The subscales are then added together. The range of responses is: 0-400 with 0 (least negative impact) to 400 (most negative impact). Change = (Year 2 Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  6. Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    The Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire measuring the impact of bladder, bowel, and vaginal symptoms on a woman's daily activities, relationships and emotions is composed of 3 scales: the Urinary Impact Questionnaire (UIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire (POPIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400), and the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ; 4 subscales, range 0-400). Scores are calculated by multiplying the mean value of all answered questions for a subscale by 100 divided by 3. The subscales are then added together. The range of responses is: 0-400 with 0 (least negative impact) to 400 (most negative impact). Change = (Year 2 Score - Baseline Score). Lower scores indicate better function / fewer symptoms.

  7. Sexual Function 36 - Physical Health Component Score Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    Sexual Function 36 (SF36) - Physical Health Component Score is the physical health component of the Sexual Function 36 survey with scores ranging from 0 to 100 with higher scores meaning a better health state. Scales are scored according to the algorithm that describes the handling of the various types of questions included in the questionnaire. Several steps are involved in the scoring process: recoding items that require it; summing over items; and transforming raw scale scores to a 0 to 100 scale. This physical health component is a function of several constructs measured under the SF36: physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, general health, and vitality.

  8. Sexual Function 36 - Mental Health Component Score Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    Sexual Function 36 (SF36) - Mental Health Component Score is the mental health component of the Sexual Function 36 survey with scores ranging from 0 to 100 with higher scores meaning a better health state. Scales are scored according to the algorithm that describes the handling of the various types of questions included in the questionnaire. Several steps are involved in the scoring process: recoding items that require it; summing over items; and transforming raw scale scores to a 0 to 100 scale.

  9. Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire Change From Baseline to 24 Months [ Time Frame: Baseline and 24 months ]
    Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ) is a survey of sexual functioning with scores ranging from 0 to 48 with higher scores meaning better sexual functioning. Patients were asked to answer 31 questions about their sexuality in the past 6 months.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Stage 2 to 4 prolapse
  • Prolapse of the vaginal apex or cervix to at least half way into the vaginal canal (POPQ Point C > -TVL/2) [TVL stands for total vaginal length]
  • Vaginal bulge symptoms as indicated by an affirmative response to either questions on the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI)
  • Vaginal surgery for prolapse is planned, including a vaginal apical suspension procedure.
  • Stress incontinence symptoms as indicated by an affirmative response to the PFDI Stress incontinence subscale
  • Documentation of transurethral stress leakage on an office stress test or urodynamics with or without prolapse reduction within the previous 12 months
  • A tension free vaginal tape (TVT) is planned to treat stress urinary incontinence.
  • A pelvic muscle training (PMT) visit can be performed at least 2 weeks and not more than 4 weeks before surgery.
  • Available for 24-months of follow-up.
  • Able to complete study assessments, per clinician judgment
  • Able and willing to provide written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Contraindication to sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF), uterosacral vaginal vault ligament suspension (ULS), or TVT in the opinion of the treating surgeon.
  • History of previous surgery that included a SSLF or ULS. (Previous vaginal vault suspensions using other techniques or in which the previous technique is unknown are eligible.)
  • Pelvic pain or dyspareunia due to levator ani spasm that would preclude a PMT program.
  • History of previous synthetic sling procedure for stress incontinence.
  • Previous adverse reaction to synthetic mesh.
  • Urethral diverticulum, current or previous (i.e., repaired)
  • History of femoral to femoral bypass.
  • Current cytotoxic chemotherapy or current or history of pelvic radiation therapy.
  • History of two inpatient hospitalizations for medical comorbidities in the previous 12 months.
  • Subject wishes to retain her uterus. [Both ULS and SLS include removal of the uterus, if not previously removed]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00597935


Locations
Layout table for location information
United States, Alabama
The University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35233-7333
United States, California
Kaiser Permanente Bellflower
Bellflower, California, United States, 90706
University of California, San Diego Medical Center
La Jolla, California, United States, 92037
Kaiser Permanente
San Diego, California, United States, 92120
United States, Illinois
Loyola University Medical Center
Maywood, Illinois, United States, 60153
United States, North Carolina
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
United States, Ohio
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
United States, Texas
University of Texas Southwestern
Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390
United States, Utah
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132
Sponsors and Collaborators
NICHD Pelvic Floor Disorders Network
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Matthew Barber, MD The Cleveland Clinic
Publications:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

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Responsible Party: NICHD Pelvic Floor Disorders Network
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00597935    
Other Study ID Numbers: 16P01
2U01HD041249 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
2U10HD041250 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
2U10HD041261 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
2U10HD041267 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
1U10HD054136 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
1U10HD054214 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
1U10HD054215 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
1U10HD054241 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: January 18, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 22, 2020
Last Update Posted: October 22, 2020
Last Verified: October 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by NICHD Pelvic Floor Disorders Network:
prolapse
urinary incontinence
uterosacral vaginal vault ligament suspension
sacrospinous ligament fixation
behavioral therapy
pelvic muscle training
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Prolapse
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Pathological Conditions, Anatomical