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Pay-it-forward RCT for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03741725
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 15, 2018
Results First Posted : January 21, 2020
Last Update Posted : July 7, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Southern Medical University, China
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
SESH (Social Entrepreneurship to Spur Health)
Yale University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Study Type Interventional
Study Design Allocation: Randomized;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label);   Primary Purpose: Screening
Conditions Gonorrhea Male
Chlamydia;M
Interventions Other: Pay-it-forward
Other: Pay-what-you-want
Enrollment 301
Recruitment Details  
Pre-assignment Details  
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Period Title: Overall Study
Number of participants Number of units (cluster of participants) Number of participants Number of units (cluster of participants) Number of participants Number of units (cluster of participants)
Started 101 10 100 10 100 10
Completed 101 10 100 10 100 10
Not Completed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care Total
Hide Arm/Group Description Men in pay-it-forward were told that the standard price of the gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that previous participants who cared about them donated toward testing fees. Thus, men in the pay-it-forward arm received a free test, and then decided whether, and if so how much to donate toward future testing for others. Participants were shown postcards and told that testing and donating were voluntary. After being introduced to the testing and the study, men in the pay-what-you-want arm were told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that they would receive free testing and then decide the amount that they would like to pay for their own test. Men in the standard of care arm received the same introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing as the men in the other two arms. They were then told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB (US$22) and they had to pay the full amount for the their testing. Total of all reporting groups
Overall Number of Baseline Participants 101 100 100 301
Hide Baseline Analysis Population Description
Each arm had ten clusters of participants.
Age, Continuous   [1] 
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Years
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 97 participants 288 participants
28.6  (7.8) 26.6  (5.6) 29.1  (7.5) 28.1  (7.1)
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them.
Age, Customized   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 97 participants 288 participants
<= 30 years
66
  67.3%
74
  79.6%
66
  68.0%
206
  71.5%
>30 years
32
  32.7%
19
  20.4%
31
  32.0%
82
  28.5%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them.
Sex: Female, Male  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 101 participants 100 participants 100 participants 301 participants
Female
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
Male
101
 100.0%
100
 100.0%
100
 100.0%
301
 100.0%
Ethnicity (NIH/OMB)  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 101 participants 100 participants 100 participants 301 participants
Hispanic or Latino
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
Not Hispanic or Latino
101
 100.0%
100
 100.0%
100
 100.0%
301
 100.0%
Unknown or Not Reported
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
Region of Enrollment  
Measure Type: Number
Unit of measure:  Participants
China Number Analyzed 101 participants 100 participants 100 participants 301 participants
101 100 100 301
Marital status   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 97 participants 288 participants
Never married
87
  88.8%
84
  90.3%
81
  83.5%
252
  87.5%
Other (engaged, married, divorced or separated)
11
  11.2%
9
   9.7%
16
  16.5%
36
  12.5%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them.
Highest education completed   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 97 participants 288 participants
Middle school or below
5
   5.1%
5
   5.4%
6
   6.2%
16
   5.6%
High/vocational school
8
   8.2%
9
   9.7%
10
  10.3%
27
   9.4%
College or above
85
  86.7%
79
  84.9%
81
  83.5%
245
  85.1%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them.
Annual income (USD)   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 97 participants 288 participants
<2,680
11
  11.2%
13
  14.0%
9
   9.3%
33
  11.5%
2,681- 5,360
7
   7.1%
9
   9.7%
10
  10.3%
26
   9.0%
5,361- 8,934
17
  17.3%
15
  16.1%
11
  11.3%
43
  14.9%
8,935- 14,294
23
  23.5%
23
  24.7%
30
  30.9%
76
  26.4%
>14,294
40
  40.8%
33
  35.5%
37
  38.1%
110
  38.2%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them.
Number of sex partners in the past three months, Categorical   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 96 participants 91 participants 91 participants 278 participants
0-1
47
  49.0%
47
  51.6%
42
  46.2%
136
  48.9%
Multiple
49
  51.0%
44
  48.4%
49
  53.8%
142
  51.1%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them. Two additional participants in pay-it-forward, two in pay-what-you-want, and six in standard-of-care did not respond to this question.
Had anal sex in the past three months   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 96 participants 287 participants
Yes
84
  85.7%
73
  78.5%
77
  80.2%
234
  81.5%
No
14
  14.3%
20
  21.5%
19
  19.8%
53
  18.5%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them. One additional person in standard-of-care did not respond to this specific survey question.
Condom use frequency during anal sex in the past three months   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 84 participants 73 participants 77 participants 234 participants
Non-use
5
   6.0%
5
   6.8%
4
   5.2%
14
   6.0%
Sometimes
6
   7.1%
9
  12.3%
9
  11.7%
24
  10.3%
Often
21
  25.0%
24
  32.9%
24
  31.2%
69
  29.5%
Always
52
  61.9%
35
  47.9%
40
  51.9%
127
  54.3%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: Only participants who reported having had anal sex in the past three months were asked this question about condom use during anal sex.
HIV testing frequency in the past two years   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 98 participants 93 participants 96 participants 287 participants
Never tested
6
   6.1%
14
  15.1%
6
   6.3%
26
   9.1%
< once every two years
15
  15.3%
9
   9.7%
9
   9.4%
33
  11.5%
Once a year
23
  23.5%
16
  17.2%
24
  25.0%
63
  22.0%
Every six months
26
  26.5%
24
  25.8%
26
  27.1%
76
  26.5%
Every three months
21
  21.4%
25
  26.9%
27
  28.1%
73
  25.4%
Monthly
7
   7.1%
5
   5.4%
4
   4.2%
16
   5.6%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 3 in pay-it-forward arm, 7 in pay-what-you-want arm, and 3 in standard-of-care arm did not complete or submit their survey questionnaires. Hence, demographic and behavioral information is lacking for them. One additional participant in the standard-of-care arm did not respond to this specific survey question.
1.Primary Outcome
Title Number of Participants Who Received the Dual Gonorrhea/Chlamydia Testing
Hide Description Dual gonorrhea/chlamydia test uptake as assessed by administrative records in each arm.
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care
Hide Arm/Group Description:
Men in pay-it-forward were told that the standard price of the gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that previous participants who cared about them donated toward testing fees. Thus, men in the pay-it-forward arm received a free test, and then decided whether, and if so how much to donate toward future testing for others. Participants were shown postcards and told that testing and donating were voluntary.
After being introduced to the testing and the study, men in the pay-what-you-want arm were told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that they would receive free testing and then decide the amount that they would like to pay for their own test.
Men in the standard of care arm received the same introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing as the men in the other two arms. They were then told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB (US$22) and they had to pay the full amount for the their testing.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 101 100 100
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of Measure: Participants
57
  56.4%
46
  46.0%
18
  18.0%
2.Secondary Outcome
Title Number of Participants Tested Positive for Gonorrhea
Hide Description The number of men who tested positive for gonorrhea through this study. Samples were collected either from urine or rectum.
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed include the participants who received the Dual Gonorrhea/Chlamydia Testing
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 57 46 18
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of Measure: Participants
1
   1.8%
2
   4.3%
2
  11.1%
3.Secondary Outcome
Title Number of Participants Tested Positive for Chlamydia
Hide Description The is the number of men who tested positive for chlamydia through this study
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed include the participants who received the Dual Gonorrhea/Chlamydia Testing
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 57 46 18
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of Measure: Participants
8
  14.0%
8
  17.4%
3
  16.7%
4.Secondary Outcome
Title Cost Per Test
Hide Description Cost per test, defined as the cost associated with respective interventions (development, start-up, implementation, intervention) per individual who reported testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia following the intervention; economic test and financial cost are reported separately.
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 101 100 100
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: USD
Using economic cost 11.24  (1.64) 9.67  (1.46) 6.12  (1.12)
Using financial cost 6.52  (1.48) 6.56  (1.26) 1.46  (0.62)
5.Secondary Outcome
Title Cost Per Diagnosis
Hide Description Cost per diagnosis, defined as the cost associated with respective interventions (development, start-up, implementation, intervention) per individual who tested positive for gonorrhea and/or chlamydia following the intervention. Cost using economic cost and financial cost were respectively reported.
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 101 100 100
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: USD
Using economic cost 11.24  (1.66) 9.67  (1.45) 6.12  (1.13)
Using financial cost 6.52  (1.47) 6.56  (1.29) 1.46  (0.62)
6.Secondary Outcome
Title Number of Participants Reporting Community Engagement Activities
Hide Description Number of participants who reported yes/no to specific questions on the awareness of and/or participation in MSM-related causes, organizations, or community events
Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Those are participants who filled out this questionnaire among those who participated in the study. In total, 3 participants did not respond in Pay-it-for-ward, 7 in Pay-what-you-want, and 3 in Standard of Care.
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 98 93 97
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of Measure: Participants
Have you ever participated in online forums or dis Number Analyzed 95 participants 92 participants 90 participants
Yes
78
  82.1%
64
  69.6%
61
  67.8%
No
17
  17.9%
28
  30.4%
29
  32.2%
Are you aware of any ongoing MSM-related community Number Analyzed 93 participants 92 participants 89 participants
Yes
48
  51.6%
30
  32.6%
37
  41.6%
No
45
  48.4%
62
  67.4%
52
  58.4%
Have you ever encouraged someone to use MSM-relate Number Analyzed 93 participants 92 participants 88 participants
Yes
77
  82.8%
72
  78.3%
70
  79.5%
No
16
  17.2%
20
  21.7%
18
  20.5%
Have you ever attended MSM-related community event Number Analyzed 94 participants 92 participants 92 participants
Yes
31
  33.0%
23
  25.0%
23
  25.0%
No
63
  67.0%
69
  75.0%
69
  75.0%
Have you ever donated to MSM-related causes, event Number Analyzed 96 participants 92 participants 94 participants
Yes
41
  42.7%
30
  32.6%
23
  24.5%
No
55
  57.3%
62
  67.4%
71
  75.5%
Have you ever volunteered for MSM-related causes Number Analyzed 93 participants 91 participants 90 participants
Yes
19
  20.4%
13
  14.3%
14
  15.6%
No
74
  79.6%
78
  85.7%
76
  84.4%
7.Secondary Outcome
Title Community Connectedness Scale Scores
Hide Description

Community connectedness scales include six statements and Likert scale response ranging from 1= Strongly disagree, 2= Agree, 3= Disagree, and 4= Strongly agree.

For each scale item, the range spans across 1 to 4, with higher score indicating more agreement with the statement and potentially higher community connectedness.

Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants declined to answer certain questions. Hence, the number analyzed in some rows is different from the overall number analyzed.
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 98 93 97
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: score on a scale
You feel that you are a part of the MSM community. Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
3.32  (0.74) 3.05  (0.72) 3.10  (0.63)
Participating in MSM community is a positive thing Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
3.16  (0.77) 3.00  (0.73) 3.00  (0.59)
You are proud of the MSM community Number Analyzed 97 participants 92 participants 90 participants
2.75  (0.87) 2.71  (0.73) 2.78  (0.78)
Important for you to advocate for the community Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 92 participants
3.24  (0.67) 3.23  (0.59) 3.10  (0.70)
If you all work together, problems will be solved Number Analyzed 97 participants 91 participants 92 participants
2.92  (0.83) 2.86  (0.69) 2.88  (0.69)
Any problems faced by the MSM are also yours Number Analyzed 97 participants 91 participants 92 participants
3.22  (0.60) 3.13  (0.62) 3.02  (0.63)
8.Secondary Outcome
Title Social Cohesion Scale Scores
Hide Description

Social cohesion is a scale made of seven statements and Likert response to them ranging from 1= strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = agree, and 4= strongly agree. Those questions asked about the feelings of being able to depend on a larger MSM community (i.e., tongzhi circle, gay online networks or groups).

For each item, the range spans across 1 to 4. For items 1 to 5, the higher score, the more agreement with the statement and potentially the higher social cohesion. Item 6 and 7 are reversely scored, meaning that the higher the score, the lower social cohesion potentially.

Time Frame During enrollment visit, an approximate total of 1.5 hours
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Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants chose to decline certain questions, which resulted in numbers analyzed in some rows being different from the overall number analyzed.
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard of Care
Hide Arm/Group Description:

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

Pay-it-forward: Participants were offered a gift of free gonorrhea and chlamydia testing made available by donations from previous testers, and asked whether they would like to donate money (pay-it-forward) for future men to receive the same option.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

Pay-what-you-want: Participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and told that they could decide and pay any desired amount after receiving the test.

First, participants were provided a brief introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Then, participants were offered gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing at the standard patient price.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 98 93 97
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: score on a scale
You can count on other MSM to lend money Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 91 participants
2.52  (0.84) 2.57  (0.76) 2.64  (0.72)
You can count on other MSM to talk about problems Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
2.98  (0.69) 2.86  (0.75) 2.98  (0.53)
You can count on other MSM if you need a place Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
2.71  (0.81) 2.73  (0.76) 2.73  (0.71)
MSM you socialize with is an integrated group Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 92 participants
2.63  (0.71) 2.68  (0.73) 2.66  (0.68)
You can trust the majority of the MSM you know. Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
2.74  (0.71) 2.59  (0.71) 2.61  (0.66)
MSM in your group only worry about themselves Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 92 participants
2.48  (0.71) 2.54  (0.76) 2.47  (0.67)
MSM you socialize with are always arguing Number Analyzed 98 participants 92 participants 93 participants
2.31  (0.69) 2.18  (0.77) 2.26  (0.62)
Time Frame Time frame was during one study visit on the day of participation.
Adverse Event Reporting Description [Not Specified]
 
Arm/Group Title Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care
Hide Arm/Group Description Men in pay-it-forward were told that the standard price of the gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that previous participants who cared about them donated toward testing fees. Thus, men in the pay-it-forward arm received a free test, and then decided whether, and if so how much to donate toward future testing for others. Participants were shown postcards and told that testing and donating were voluntary. After being introduced to the testing and the study, men in the pay-what-you-want arm were told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB ($22US), and that they would receive free testing and then decide the amount that they would like to pay for their own test. Men in the standard of care arm received the same introduction to gonorrhea and chlamydia testing as the men in the other two arms. They were then told that the standard price of gonorrhea and chlamydia testing was 150RMB (US$22) and they had to pay the full amount for the their testing.
All-Cause Mortality
Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/101 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%) 
Hide Serious Adverse Events
Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/101 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%) 
Hide Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events
Frequency Threshold for Reporting Other Adverse Events 0%
Pay-it-forward Pay-what-you-want Standard-of-care
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/101 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%)   0/100 (0.00%) 
Certain Agreements
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.
Results Point of Contact
Layout table for Results Point of Contact information
Name/Title: Dr. Weiming Tang
Organization: University of North Carolina, Project-China
Phone: +86-15920567132
EMail: weiming_tang@med.unc.edu
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Responsible Party: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03741725    
Other Study ID Numbers: 18-2142
5P30AG034420-10 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
R01AI114310 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: November 12, 2018
First Posted: November 15, 2018
Results First Submitted: January 6, 2020
Results First Posted: January 21, 2020
Last Update Posted: July 7, 2020