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Acupuncture in Emergency Delirium After Tonsillectomy

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04693390
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : January 5, 2021
Last Update Posted : January 6, 2022
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE December 30, 2020
First Posted Date  ICMJE January 5, 2021
Last Update Posted Date January 6, 2022
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE January 15, 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 31, 2022   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 31, 2020)
Postoperative agitation evaluated with the PAED scale [ Time Frame: Within 5 minutes from arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed by the health personnel with the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale. PAED consists of 5 psychometric items describing emergence behavior, with score ranging from 0 to 20. The severity of ED increases with a higher score. Scores ≥10 indicate the presence of ED.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 31, 2020)
  • Postoperative agitation evaluated with the PAED scale [ Time Frame: 30 minutes after the arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed by the health personnel with PAED scale. PAED consists of 5 psychometric items describing emergence behavior, with score ranging from 0 to 20. The severity of ED increases with a higher score. Scores ≥10 indicate the presence of ED.
  • Postoperative agitation evaluated with the Watcha Scale [ Time Frame: Within 5 minutes from arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed with the Watcha Scale. The Watcha scale is a 4 points scale, describing the behaviour of the patient; a score >2 indicates emergence delirium.
  • Postoperative agitation evaluated with the Cravero scale [ Time Frame: Within 5 minutes from arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed with the Cravero emergence agitation scale, consisting of five steps from obtunded and unresponsive to wild thrashing behaviour requiring restraint. A score of 4 (from crying and difficult to console to wild thrashing) for 5 or more minutes is indicative of emergency delirium.
  • Postoperative agitation evaluated with the Watcha Scale [ Time Frame: 30 minutes after the arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed with the Watcha Scale. The Watcha scale is a 4 points scale, describing the behaviour of the patient; a score >2 indicates emergence delirium.
  • Postoperative agitation evaluated with the Cravero scale [ Time Frame: 30 minutes after the arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in postoperative agitation assessed with the Cravero emergence agitation scale, consisting of five steps from obtunded and unresponsive to wild thrashing behaviour requiring restraint. A score of 4 (from crying and difficult to console to wild thrashing) for 5 or more minutes is indicative of emergency delirium.
  • Pain evaluated with the FLACC scale [ Time Frame: Within 5 minutes from arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in pain, evaluated using the Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale administered by the health personnel. The FLACC tool assesses changes in five categories of behavior (namely: Face, legs, Activity, Crying and Consolability), rating each one on a scale of 0-2. Ten is the maximum score indicating severe pain and a score <2 generally indicates absence of pain. A FLACC score higher than 4 is considered as indicator of moderate pain.
  • Pain evaluated with the FLACC scale [ Time Frame: 30 minutes after the arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in pain, evaluated using the FLACC scale administered by the health personnel. The FLACC tool assesses changes in five categories of behavior (namely: Face, legs, Activity, Crying and Consolability), rating each one on a scale of 0-2. Ten is the maximum score indicating severe pain and a score <2 generally indicates absence of pain. A FLACC score higher than 4 is considered as indicator of moderate pain.
  • Unintended harm caused by patients agitation [ Time Frame: Within 5 minutes from arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in harming surgical repair, harming self or caregivers, pulling out IV's draws or tubes
  • Unintended harm caused by patients agitation [ Time Frame: 30 minutes after the arrival in the post anesthesia care unit ]
    Between groups difference in harming surgical repair, harming self or caregivers, pulling out IV's draws or tubes
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Acupuncture in Emergency Delirium After Tonsillectomy
Official Title  ICMJE Acupuncture Management of Emergence Agitation in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Brief Summary

Emergence delirium (ED) (also called emergence agitation) can be defined as a "dissociated state of consciousness in which the child is irritable, uncompromising, uncooperative, incoherent and inconsolable crying, moaning, kicking or thrashing".

Tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) is a routinely performed operation. Emergence agitation is a frequent phenomenon in children recovering from general anesthesia for tonsillectomy, and increases risk of self-injury. It's not unusual for the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) staff look that a child, who was asleep just minutes before, starts screaming, pulling out his intravenous line, looks like he's about to fall out of his bed. This condition requires sedatives that may cause undesirable side effects. The cause of emergence delirium and the mechanism of agitation following general anesthesia is unknown. Probably the volatile agents work on some pathways, possibly in the locus coeruleus or amygdala, in the setting of a specific neurodevelopmental stage of the brain.

While emergence delirium can be seen into adulthood, its peak incidence is in younger children (2-7 years of age). The incidence of ED is unclear: anywhere from 2-80%, but when confounders like pain, nausea etc. are controlled, the incidence is probably around 20-30%.

Limited data suggest that acupuncture may be a safe, nonpharmacological treatment for the reduction of pain and agitation in term and preterm infants and that may be an alternative method for preventing ED. In particular a prospective, randomized, double-bind controlled study demonstrated a reduction of the ED in many surgeries, after the electrical stimulation of the heart 7 acupuncture site.

Nearly 400 acupuncture points are known on the body surface and they belong to 14 meridians, running along the human body. After the needle peeling, the nervous free terminations release some polypeptid (the most important is the substantia P) and it increases the excitability of the near nervous free terminations which cause vasodilatation. It has a myorelaxant effect, decreases the level for pain tolerance and make stronger the inhibitor effect of descendent fibers, with production of endogenous endorphins. This is the reason why acupuncture is considered valid in prevention and control of ED.

Detailed Description Not Provided
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Condition  ICMJE Emergence Delirium
Intervention  ICMJE Procedure: Acupuncture
Application of acupuncture
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Acupuncture
    The acupuncture will be applied at points LI4, ST36, HT7, in association with auriculotherapy point Master Cerebral, immediately after induction of anesthesia for 20 minutes
    Intervention: Procedure: Acupuncture
  • No Intervention: Standard care group
    The patients will follow the standard procedure
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 31, 2020)
42
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE December 31, 2022
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 31, 2022   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion criteria

  1. Children scheduled to undergo tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy
  2. American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status I or II

Exclusion criteria

  1. Coagulation disorders (pro-hemorrhagic status)
  2. Neurological disorders (development delay)
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 2 Years to 12 Years   (Child)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE
Contact: Silvia Tisato, MD 00390403785111 silvia.tisato@burlo.trieste.it
Contact: Silvia Tisato, MD 00390403785111 siliva.tisato@burlo.trieste.it
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Italy
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT04693390
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE RC 33/2020
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party IRCCS Burlo Garofolo
Study Sponsor  ICMJE IRCCS Burlo Garofolo
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Silvia Tisato, MD Institute for maternal and child health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo
PRS Account IRCCS Burlo Garofolo
Verification Date January 2022

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP