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A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial on the Use of Cerebral Oximetry in Adult Chinese Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation (LT)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04122027
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : October 10, 2019
Last Update Posted : October 10, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr. Kenneth Siu-Ho Chok, The University of Hong Kong

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 9, 2019
First Posted Date  ICMJE October 10, 2019
Last Update Posted Date October 10, 2019
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE July 30, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date May 31, 2020   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 9, 2019)
Duration of confusion as assessed by the Confusion Assessment method [ Time Frame: 48 hours after liver transplant ]
To assess patients experience of development of delirium
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History No Changes Posted
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 9, 2019)
  • The time taken for MOCA to return to baseline [ Time Frame: 10 days after liver transplant ]
    To assess the time patients required to return health conditions within 10 days after surgery
  • Other complications unrelated to neurological deficit according to Clavien-Dino Classification. [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    To monitor any other complications developed by patients after liver transplant
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial on the Use of Cerebral Oximetry in Adult Chinese Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation
Official Title  ICMJE Use of Cerebral Oximetry In Adult Chinese Patients For Liver Transplantation
Brief Summary Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving procedure for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Although with continuous advancement in technology, it remains a high-risk operation. The goal of LT is not only ensure survival of the patients but also to restore them back to their pre-morbid state with a good quality of life. Neurological sequelae can have major impact on postoperative outcomes after LT and yet the reported literature is scarce. Studies from Western countries showed some evidence on the use of cerebral oximtery in cardiac surgery to prevent neurological mishaps. LT shares similar intra-operative fluctuation of the haemodynamices as in cardiac surgery, causing disturbances in regional cerebral oxygenation and theorectically cerebral oximetry should be of great value as well in LT surgery. Data from a large randomised controlled trial is lacking from the current literatures. We therefore propose a prospective randomized controlled trial on the use of this device in adult LT and see whether its use could reduce neurological mishaps.
Detailed Description

Liver Transplant Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving procedure for patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite continuous advancement in technology, it remains a high-risk operation. The building-up of an oxygen debt during LT can lead to an increased risk of poor postoperative outcomes (1, 2). Furthermore, patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease are prone to hepatic encephalopathy, which can lead to disturbance of auto-regulation in the brain, which may eventually cause cerebral hypoxia and ischaemia. Irresversible metabolic disturbances can impair cerebral auto-regulation, causing poor neurological outcomes after LT (3). The prevalence of encephalopathy, delirium and stroke in transplant recipients is 12-40% (3). Hypotheses for these conditions include prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (so-called "ICU psychosis"), the use of Tacrolimus (4), rapid correction of hyponatraemia (5) and impaired cerebral auto-regulation (3), but no definite conclusion can be made most of the time. Among these hypotheses, impairment of cerebral auto-regulation has never been documented in large clinical trials for Chinese patients in LT.

Cerebral oximetry (Near infra-red spectroscopy, NIRS) There is no "gold standard" for measuring cerebral auto-regulation. Monitoring of the brain oxygenation, such as direct tissue O2 tension and jugular bulb O2 saturation, has been used as a surrogate of auto-regulation but it is invasive. Transcranial laser Doppler (TCD) of the middle cerebral artery has been validated in healthy volunteers as well as real patients as a good measurement of cerebral blood flow (6, 7). Similarly, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a non-invasive and continuous method, can also monitor the regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) and is increasingly used in cardiac surgery. A previous report has validated the use of NIRS when compared to TCD, as the latter requires a trained technician to monitor and supervise. NIRS provides a timely, real-time, inexpensive, easily measurable alternative to TCD, and thus should have a great potential for clinical usage in LT. Similar to other non-invasive oximetry (e.g. pulse oximetry), measurement can be done through adhesive tapes over bilateral forehead and connected to the machine (INVOS™ 5100C Cerebral/Somatic Oximeter by Covidien). This system is the ONLY cerebral/somatic oximetry system with FDA cleared improved outcome claims (8). Plachky et al. showed that 50% of patients demonstrated a decline in cerebral oxygen saturation when clamping of the vessles during LT and it had positive correlation with the postoperative cerebral disrubances (9). Nonetheless, the clinical application for patients undergoing LT is scarce and its application is novel. The use of this technology may potenitally be limited by the presence of high levels of bilirubin acting as a chromophore interferring with its data acquistion. However, in a pilot study of 9 patients who underwent LT investigators using this technology were able to demonstrate that 3 out of 9 patients had either transient or persistent impaired auto regulation throughout the operation. This in turn was associated with higher Model of End-Stage Disease Score (MELD) >15 (p=0.015), more postoperative seizures and stroke (P<0.0001) (3). A recent systematic review (10) of 901 Caucasians from 24 publications showing a decrease in NIRS (>15% relative to baseline) could have impaired postoperative cognitive function (28 versus 26; MMSE) and reduced LOS (14 versus 23 days) in open surgery. In the field of LT, impaired cerebral autoregulation (25%), cerebral deoxygenation in the anhepatic phase (36%) and cerebral hyperoxygenation with reperfusion of the grafted liver (14%) were identified by NIRS and could lead to adverse neurological outcome such as seizures, transient hemiparesis and stroke. Nonetheless, no large prospective randomized trial and no Chinese cohort were included.


  1. Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, Kram HB. Role of oxygen debt in the development of organ failure sepsis, and death in high-risk surgical patients. Chest. 1992;102(1):208-15.
  2. Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, Kram HB. Hemodynamic and oxygen transport responses in survivors and nonsurvivors of high-risk surgery. Critical care medicine. 1993;21(7):977-90.
  3. Lescot T, Karvellas CJ, Chaudhury P, Tchervenkov J, Paraskevas S, Barkun J, et al. Postoperative delirium in the intensive care unit predicts worse outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Can J Gastroenterol. 2013;27(4):207-12.
  4. DiMartini AF, Trzepacz PT, Pajer KA, Faett D, Fung J. Neuropsychiatric side effects of FK506 vs. cyclosporine A. First-week postoperative findings. Psychosomatics. 1997;38(6):565-9.
  5. Lee J, Kim DK, Lee JW, Oh KH, Oh YK, Na KY, et al. Rapid Correction Rate of Hyponatremia as an Independent Risk Factor for Neurological Complication Following Liver Transplantation. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;229(2):97-105.
  6. Lang EW, Mehdorn HM, Dorsch NW, Czosnyka M. Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular autoregulation: a validation study. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 2002;72(5):583-6.
  7. Ono M, Zheng Y, Joshi B, Sigl JC, Hogue CW. Validation of a stand-alone near-infrared spectroscopy system for monitoring cerebral autoregulation during cardiac surgery. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2013;116(1):198-204.
  8. Murkin JM, Adams SJ, Novick RJ, Quantz M, Bainbridge D, Iglesias I, et al. Monitoring brain oxygen saturation during coronary bypass surgery: a randomized, prospective study. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2007;104(1):51-8.
  9. Plachky J, Hofer S, Volkmann M, Martin E, Bardenheuer HJ, Weigand MA. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation is a sensitive marker of cerebral hypoperfusion during orthotopic liver transplantation. Anesth Analg. 2004;99(2):344-9.
  10. Sorensen H, Grocott HP, Secher NH. Near infrared spectroscopy for frontal lobe oxygenation during non-vascular abdominal surgery. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2016;36(6):427-35.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Other
Condition  ICMJE Liver Failure
Intervention  ICMJE Other: Cerebral oximeter
Near infra-red spectroscopy, NIRS
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: Control
    Patients undergoing liver transplantation without regional cerebral oxygenation monitoring using a cerebral oximeter.
    Intervention: Other: Cerebral oximeter
  • Active Comparator: Intervention
    Patients undergoing liver transplantation with regional cerebral oxygenation monitoring using a cerebral oximeter.
    Intervention: Other: Cerebral oximeter
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 9, 2019)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE May 31, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date May 31, 2020   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Able to get informed consent by patient
  • Patients undergo DDLT or LDLT at Department of Surgery, Liver Transplant Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital
  • Ethnicity is Chinese

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Refusal of consent by patient
  • Pre-existing neurological damage, history of seizures and on antidepressants
  • Skin conditions over forehead that precludes the application of sensors of equipment
  • Ethnicity is not Chinese
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE
Contact: Kenneth Chok, MBBS, MS, FRCS, FCSHK, FHKAM 22553025 ext 085222554848
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE China,   Hong Kong
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT04122027
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE UW 18-321
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Dr. Kenneth Siu-Ho Chok, The University of Hong Kong
Study Sponsor  ICMJE The University of Hong Kong
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE Not Provided
PRS Account The University of Hong Kong
Verification Date October 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP