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New Therapies and Biomarkers for Chagas Infection (TESEO)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03981523
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 11, 2019
Last Update Posted : December 24, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Fundación Ciencia y Estudios Aplicados para el Desarrollo en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CEADES)
Barcelona Institute for Global Health
Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine Lopez Neyra
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Drugs for Neglected Diseases
Mundo Sano Foundation
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Igor C Almeida, D.Sc., University of Texas, El Paso

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE April 8, 2019
First Posted Date  ICMJE June 11, 2019
Last Update Posted Date December 24, 2019
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE December 18, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 18, 2020   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 8, 2019)
Sustained Parasitological Clearance by qualitative RT-PCR (at End of Follow-up (36 months) [ Time Frame: up to 36 months ]
The primary efficacy endpoint is a binary 'cured' (success), 'not-cured' (failure) variable based on a total of eight RT-PCR time points from end-of-treatment (EOT) until 36 months of follow-up. Each of the timepoints includes a total of 3 sequential RT-PCR examinations on blood samples collected during one visit. For a patient to be considered "cured", a total of 24 negative RT-PCR results should be documented. Blood samples to be collected over 7 days at EOT (15, 30 or 90 days), and at 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months).
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: June 6, 2019)
Sustained Parasitological Clearance by qPCR at End of Follow-up (36 months) [ Time Frame: up to 36 months ]
The primary efficacy endpoint is a binary 'cured' (success), 'not-cured' (failure) variable based on a total of eight qPCR time points from end-of-treatment (EOT) until 36 months of follow-up. Each of the timepoints includes a total of 3 PCR examinations. For a patient to be considered "cured", a total of 24 negative PCR results should be documented. Blood samples to be collected over 7 days at EOT (15, 30 or 90 days), and at 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months).
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 8, 2019)
  • Changes Over Time in the Parasitemia by RT-PCR [ Time Frame: Days -28, 14-17, and 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in parasitemia as measured by RT-PCR. The unit for the RT-PCR is parasite equivalents/milliliter of blood (Par. Eq./mL). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the RT-PCR assay is 0.69 and 1.5 Par. Eq./mL blood, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves will be drawn to depict the time-to-reappearance of parasitemia for patients who have cleared parasitemia at EOT (as such this is a time-to-relapse for 'success' patients) across treatment groups. A discrete-time survival model will be used to analyze this event time data.
  • Changes Over Time in the Conventional Serology "CHAGATEK ELISA" [ Time Frame: Day -28; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months) during follow-up. ]
    Evaluate changes over time in serological titers and incidence of negative seroconversion for the CHAGATEK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. This kit unit is Optical Density (OD) at 450 nm. The cutoff for this kit is calculated as follows: Cutoff = negative control (NC) + 0.100 = 0.195 x 0.100 = 0.295: OD = 0.295. A serum sample is deemed positive when OD = or > 0.295; and negative when OD < 0.295. Generalized linear mixed-effects models will be used to evaluate the conventional serological response over time. The dependent variable in both models will be a binary conventional serology parameter. The treatment arm will be included in the model as a fixed effect. The significance of the treatment covariate will be tested at the 0.05 two-sided significance level with Likelihood Ratio Test.
  • Changes Over Time in the Conventional Serology "Chagatest ELISA recombinante" [ Time Frame: Day -28; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months) during follow-up. ]
    Evaluate changes over time in serological titers and incidence of negative seroconversion for the "Chagatest ELISA recombinante" kit. This kit unit is Optical Density (OD) at 450 nm. The cutoff for this kit is calculated as follows: Cutoff = negative control (NC) + 0.300 O.D. The indeterminate zone = cutoff +/- 10%. A serum sample is deemed non-reactive (=negative) when OD < inferior limit of the indeterminate zone; reactive (=positive) when OD > superior limit of the indeterminate zone; and indeterminate when OD is within the indeterminate zone. Generalized linear mixed-effects models will be used to evaluate the conventional serological response over time. The dependent variable in both models will be a binary conventional serology parameter. The treatment arm will be included in the model as a fixed effect. The significance of the treatment covariate will be tested at the 0.05 two-sided significance level with Likelihood Ratio Test.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Lytic Anti-α-Gal Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in the non-conventional serology biomarker (BMK) "Lytic Anti-α-Gal Antibodies" and incidence of negative seroconversion for it, as measured by chemiluminescent (CL)-ELISA using T. cruzi tGPI-mucins as antigens. CL-ELISA unit is the Titer (T). T is the ratio of the relative luminescence units (RLU) of the tested serum to the cutoff value (CV). The CV is calculated by defining the upper prediction limit (as standard deviation, SD), multiplied by a factor according to the number of negative controls (NC) and a confidence interval of 99.5%. For each test plate in which six NC are included, the CV is defined as the NC mean plus 4.355 times the SD. A serum sample is positive when T = or >1.000; negative when T = or < 0.900; and inconclusive when T > 0.900, < 1.000. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-KMP11 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.200, and positive when OD values >0.300, at 1/200 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.200 and 0.300. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-HSP70 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.300, and positive when OD values >0.450, at 1/200 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.300 and 0.450. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 30% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or < 20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-PFR2 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.250 at 1/400 dilution, and positive when OD values >0.350, at 1/400 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.250 and 0.350. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-Peptide 3973 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.250, and positive when OD values >0.350, at 1/400 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.250 and 0.350. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens (TESA)" [ Time Frame: Days 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in the non-conventional serology biomarker (BMK) "Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens (TESA)" and incidence of negative seroconversion for it, as measured by the aptamer assay. The unit of the aptamer assay is relative fluorescence unit (RFU). A Signal to Cutoff (S/CO) ratio is calculated for each clinical specimen by dividing the RFU value of the test sample by the cutoff (CO). The CO is the highest RFU value obtained from the endemic control specimens included in each run. The S/CO of a positive control included in the same run must meet pre-established acceptance criteria to be valid. A specimen with an S/CO > 1.0 is interpreted as positive for the presence of the BMK (=infected). A specimen with an S/CO < 1 is interpreted as negative (=non-infected). Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: June 6, 2019)
  • Changes Over Time in the Parasitemia by qPCR [ Time Frame: Days -28, 14-17, and 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in parasitemia as measured by qPCR. The unit for the qPCR is parasite equivalents/milliliter of blood (Par. Eq./mL). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the qPCR assay is 0.69 and 1.5 Par. Eq./mL blood, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves will be drawn to depict the time-to-reappearance of parasitemia for patients who have cleared parasitemia at EOT (as such this is a time-to-relapse for 'success' patients) across treatment groups. A discrete-time survival model will be used to analyze this event time data.
  • Changes Over Time in the Conventional Serology "CHAGATEK ELISA" [ Time Frame: Day -28; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months) during follow-up. ]
    Evaluate changes over time in serological titers and incidence of negative seroconversion for the CHAGATEK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. This kit unit is Optical Density (OD) at 450 nm. The cutoff for this kit is calculated as follows: Cutoff = negative control (NC) + 0.100 = 0.195 x 0.100 = 0.295: OD = 0.295. A serum sample is deemed positive when OD = or > 0.295; and negative when OD < 0.295. Generalized linear mixed-effects models will be used to evaluate the conventional serological response over time. The dependent variable in both models will be a binary conventional serology parameter. The treatment arm will be included in the model as a fixed effect. The significance of the treatment covariate will be tested at the 0.05 two-sided significance level with Likelihood Ratio Test.
  • Changes Over Time in the Conventional Serology "Chagatest ELISA recombinante" [ Time Frame: Day -28; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months) during follow-up. ]
    Evaluate changes over time in serological titers and incidence of negative seroconversion for the "Chagatest ELISA recombinante" kit. This kit unit is Optical Density (OD) at 450 nm. The cutoff for this kit is calculated as follows: Cutoff = negative control (NC) + 0.300 O.D. The indeterminate zone = cutoff +/- 10%. A serum sample is deemed non-reactive (=negative) when OD < inferior limit of the indeterminate zone; reactive (=positive) when OD > superior limit of the indeterminate zone; and indeterminate when OD is within the indeterminate zone. Generalized linear mixed-effects models will be used to evaluate the conventional serological response over time. The dependent variable in both models will be a binary conventional serology parameter. The treatment arm will be included in the model as a fixed effect. The significance of the treatment covariate will be tested at the 0.05 two-sided significance level with Likelihood Ratio Test.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Lytic Anti-α-Gal Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in the non-conventional serology biomarker (BMK) "Lytic Anti-α-Gal Antibodies" and incidence of negative seroconversion for it, as measured by chemiluminescent (CL)-ELISA using T. cruzi tGPI-mucins as antigens. CL-ELISA unit is the Titer (T). T is the ratio of the relative luminescence units (RLU) of the tested serum to the cutoff value (CV). The CV is calculated by defining the upper prediction limit (as standard deviation, SD), multiplied by a factor according to the number of negative controls (NC) and a confidence interval of 99.5%. For each test plate in which six NC are included, the CV is defined as the NC mean plus 4.355 times the SD. A serum sample is positive when T = or >1.000; negative when T = or < 0.900; and inconclusive when T > 0.900, < 1.000. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-KMP11 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.200, and positive when OD values >0.300, at 1/200 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.200 and 0.300. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-HSP70 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.300, and positive when OD values >0.450, at 1/200 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.300 and 0.450. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 30% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or < 20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-PFR2 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.250 at 1/400 dilution, and positive when OD values >0.350, at 1/400 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.250 and 0.350. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Anti-Peptide 3973 Antibodies" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    This BMK is measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), whose unit is Optical Density (OD) at 492 nm. Cutoff: A negative result will be considered when OD values = or <0.250, and positive when OD values >0.350, at 1/400 serum dilution; indeterminate results will be OD values comprised between 0.250 and 0.350. Therapeutic efficacy will imply a continuous and substantial drop in the reactivity after treatment. A substantial decrease has to be at least 40% compared with the reactivity at T0 (before treatment). A slight increase (= or <20%) in the reactivity against the BMK shortly after treatment versus OD at T0 will be allowed. Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
  • Changes Over Time in the Non-Conventional Serology Biomarker "Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens (TESA)" [ Time Frame: Days -28, 0, 14-17, 59-62; EOT-15, EOT-30, and EOT-90; and at months 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 during follow-up (with a window period of +/- 7 days from 4 to 12 months and +/- 14 days from 18 to 36 months). ]
    Evaluate changes over time in the non-conventional serology biomarker (BMK) "Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens (TESA)" and incidence of negative seroconversion for it, as measured by the aptamer assay. The unit of the aptamer assay is relative fluorescence unit (RFU). A Signal to Cutoff (S/CO) ratio is calculated for each clinical specimen by dividing the RFU value of the test sample by the cutoff (CO). The CO is the highest RFU value obtained from the endemic control specimens included in each run. The S/CO of a positive control included in the same run must meet pre-established acceptance criteria to be valid. A specimen with an S/CO > 1.0 is interpreted as positive for the presence of the BMK (=infected). A specimen with an S/CO < 1 is interpreted as negative (=non-infected). Generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM) will define how this BMK affects binary outcomes of parasite clearance. The BMK variable will be included in the model, with repeated measures.
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE New Therapies and Biomarkers for Chagas Infection
Official Title  ICMJE New Chemotherapy Regimens and Biomarkers for Chagas Disease
Brief Summary

Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic zoonotic disease with a significant global impact. Current approved treatments for CD (benznidazole (BZN) and nifurtimox (NFX)) were developed in the 1970s with regimens and dosing intervals derived from decades-old patient series and with very limited direct comparisons. Treatment recommendations vary significantly from country to country and the comparative evidence-base with the current treatment regimens is limited.

The reported efficacy of both drugs in patients with T. cruzi infection is variable and depends on the disease stage, the drug dose, the age of patients, and the infecting T. cruzi strain or genotype. Due to a therapeutic failure of at least 20% after 12 months in chronic patients and the high rate of adverse events, together with the recent data that suggest that we may be overdosing patients, we propose to test new dosing regimens of these two old compounds.

Hypotheses:

  • Lowering the frequency of drug dosing of BZN and NFX, the plasma drug levels of the drugs within the therapeutic range will be maintained.
  • The duration of treatment with BZN or NFX may be related to the effectiveness of these drugs.
  • Blood levels of the proposed biomarkers will significantly diminish or became negative after a relatively short interval after treatment.
Detailed Description

Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite, T. cruzi. It affects 8-10 million people in Latin America and is a worldwide public health issue due to migratory flows. CD has a significant economic impact. Recently, a study showed that the global costs for CD are US$7-19 billion per year, similar or even higher to those of other important diseases such as rotavirus infection or cervical cancer. Treatment of chronic CD (CCD) has been hampered, unlike other illnesses, by the paramount importance given to the autoimmune theory of the disease that prevailed for many years. As a result, several generations of health professionals were trained in the belief that CCD had no treatment. As a consequence, currently, most (>99%) chronically infected people are still not treated with specific antiparasitic drugs, and the research and development for new, more effective drugs was overlooked for many years, until very recently. Nowadays, the key role of the parasite persistence in the pathophysiology of CD is recognized, as well as the need for specific treatment.

Current approved specific treatments for CD include nifurtimox (NFX) and benznidazole (BZN) and the recommended dosing regimens are 5 mg/Kg/day divided into two doses (2.5 mg/Kg b.i.d) given for 60 days for BZN, and 8 mg/Kg divided into three equal daily doses (2.7 mg/Kg t.i.d.) given for 90 days for NFX. The efficacy of both drugs in patients with T. cruzi infection is highly variable and depends on the disease stage, the drug dose, the age of patients, and the infecting T. cruzi strain or genotype. Moreover, the high rate of adverse events hampers their standard use in the field. Recent studies show that at the current doses of both drugs, more than 70% of patients suffer mild/moderate reactions and around 10-27% experience serious ones, forcing patients to stop the treatment and take appropriate medications for the adverse events. Data on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BZN and NFX are limited and there are no recent data on PK of NFX in adults with chronic CD. Moreover, due to a lack of early BMKs of therapeutic efficacy, the true efficacy of these drugs remains unknown. Seroconversion using conventional serology (CS) is often long-term (~10-20 years) or incomplete, and a reduction in T. cruzi-specific antibody titers often takes many years, rendering the evaluation of response to treatment insensitive and lengthy, and therefore impractical in clinical settings. The need for new, safer, and more efficacious drugs against T. cruzi as well as early BMKS of therapeutic efficacy are the major challenges in the treatment of CD, particularly in chronic adults.

With this project, the investigators aim to achieve specific knowledge about the safety and efficacy of new dosing regimens for BZN and NFX. The proposed new regimens for these drugs are based on recent data that suggest that with half of the dosing frequency the levels of BZN can be maintained in the therapeutic range of this drug, which could conceivably reduce the appearance of adverse events while maintaining antiparasitic efficacy. At the same time, the investigators plan to evaluate whether the drug efficacy will be maintained if the investigators reduce the length of treatment with BZN or NFX to 30 or 15 days. Furthermore, the investigators also plan to evaluate whether the efficacy of the treatment with BZN or NFX is improved by increasing its duration to 90 days and to evaluate novel potential BMKs of response to specific treatment and eventual parasitological cure in CCD patients. The information obtained in this study would also allow for better-designed clinical trials with drug combinations, in which NFX and BZN will have a central role.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
Three of 6 parallel groups will receive one of three different oral benznidazole (BZN) dosing regimens and the other three will receive one of the three different nifurtimox (NFX) regimens.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection
  • Chagas Disease
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Benznidazole
    50 mg and 100 mg tablet taken orally
    Other Names:
    • P01CA02
    • Abarax
    • Radanil
    • Rochagan
  • Drug: Nifurtimox
    120 mg tablet taken orally
    Other Names:
    • Lampit
    • P01CC01
    • QP51AC01
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: BZN-60
    150 mg twice a day for 60 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Benznidazole
  • Experimental: BZN-30
    150 mg once a day for 30 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Benznidazole
  • Experimental: BZN-90
    150 mg once a day for 90 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Benznidazole
  • Experimental: NFX-60
    240 mg twice a day for 60 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Nifurtimox
  • Experimental: NFX-30
    240 mg twice a day for 30 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Nifurtimox
  • Experimental: NFX-90
    240 mg once a day for 90 days.
    Intervention: Drug: Nifurtimox
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: June 6, 2019)
450
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE July 31, 2023
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 18, 2020   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Adults, 18-50 years.
  2. Weight: 88-198 pounds (40-90 Kg).
  3. Individuals diagnosed as being infected with T. cruzi by conventional serology (two positive tests with different antigens) with at least one positive qualitative RT-PCR assay out of three during the screening.
  4. Patient classified as being in the indeterminate form (without clinical manifestations) or early cardiac form (Kushnir 1) of chronic Chagas disease.
  5. Signed informed consent form (ICF).

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Clinical signs of dilated cardiomyopathy (dyspnea, legs' edema, syncope, pulmonary crackles). Patients with an EKG showing the following characteristics: sinus tachycardia or atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, left atrial enlargement, left bundle-branch block (LBBB) accompanied by right axis deviation (RAD).
  2. History of Chagas disease treatment with BZN or NFX or any triazole drug(s) in the last five years.
  3. Clinical signs and/or symptoms of digestive form of Chagas disease, which is characterized by the presence of two or more of the following criteria *:

    1. Excessive exertion in at least 25% of bowel movements
    2. Hard stools in at least 25% of stools (type 1-2 of Bristol)
    3. Feeling of incomplete evacuation in at least 25% of bowel movements
    4. Feeling of obstruction or anorectal block in at least 25% of bowel movements
    5. Manual maneuvers to facilitate defecation in at least 25% of bowel movements
    6. Less than 3 complete spontaneous stools per week

      • Criteria must be met for at least the last three months and symptoms must have been started for at least six months before diagnosis.
  4. Hypersensitivity to the active substances (BZN or NFX) or to the excipient.
  5. Previous diagnosis of porphyria.
  6. Any other acute or chronic health conditions that in the opinion of the PI, may interfere with the efficacy and/or safety evaluation of the study drug.
  7. Formal contraindication to BZN or NFX.
  8. Any concomitant or anticipated use of drugs that are contraindicated with the use of BZN or NFX.
  9. Individuals currently known to abuse alcohol and/or drugs. Furthermore, if throughout the course of the study the team becomes aware that a participant is using drugs/alcohol that participant will be excluded from the treatment but will continue with the follow-up visits. The study manual outlines how abuse and dependence will be measured for this study.
  10. Pregnancy. Females of childbearing potential will be required to complete a pregnancy test prior to enrollment and throughout the course of treatment.
  11. Women in reproductive age must have a negative serum pregnancy test at screening, must not be breastfeeding, and consistently use and/or have partner consistently use a highly effective contraceptive method during the entire treatment phase of the trial.
  12. Transaminases (alanine aminotransferase-ALT and aspartate aminotransferase- AST). AST must be within the normal range, within an acceptable margin of 25% above the upper limit of normality for both, according to the insert of the biochemical kit being used in this study.
  13. Creatinine must be within an acceptable range, within an acceptable margin of 10% above the upper limit of normality, according to the insert of the biochemical kit being used. The normal ranges of transaminases (ALT and AST) and creatinine are defined by the inserts of the commercial biochemical kits selected to be used in the present study. All treatment centers (Chagas Platforms in Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija) are going to use the same biochemical kits. The participating clinical laboratories at the Platforms (in Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija) will use the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, v.5.0; ttps://ctep.cancer.gov/protocoldevelopment/electronic_applications/docs/ctcae_v5_quick_reference_5x7.pdf).
  14. Total bilirubin must be within the normal range, within an acceptable margin of 15% above the upper limit of normality for both sexes, according to the insert of the biochemical kit being used in this study.
  15. For other standard exclusion criteria, a detailed explanation for each criterion is provided in the Manual of Operations and Procedures (MOP).
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 50 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE
Contact: Igor C Almeida, D.Sc. 915-747-6086 icalmeida@utep.edu
Contact: Virginia R Gonzalez, B.S. 915-747-8838 vrgonzalez6@utep.edu
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Bolivia
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT03981523
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 743474-11
1U01AI129783-01A1 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Responsible Party Igor C Almeida, D.Sc., University of Texas, El Paso
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Texas, El Paso
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • Fundación Ciencia y Estudios Aplicados para el Desarrollo en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CEADES)
  • Barcelona Institute for Global Health
  • Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine Lopez Neyra
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Drugs for Neglected Diseases
  • Mundo Sano Foundation
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Igor C Almeida, D.Sc. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP)
Principal Investigator: Faustino Torrico, M.D., Ph.D Fundación Ciencia y Estudios Aplicados para el Desarrollo en Salud y Medio Ambiente (CEADES)
Principal Investigator: Joaquim Gascon, M.D., Ph.D Barcelona Institute for Global Health
PRS Account University of Texas, El Paso
Verification Date December 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP