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A Gamified, Social Media Inspired Personalized Normative Feedback Alcohol Intervention for Sexual Minority Women

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03884478
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 21, 2019
Last Update Posted : February 21, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Loyola Marymount University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE February 14, 2019
First Posted Date  ICMJE March 21, 2019
Last Update Posted Date February 21, 2020
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE February 6, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date October 10, 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 19, 2019)
  • Change in number of drinks per week from baseline [ Time Frame: 2 months ]
    Items assessing drinking days per week and average drinks per occasion will be multiplied in order to compute number of drinks per week. These items come from the Frequency, Quantity, Max (FQM) measure. [Baer J, S. Etiology and secondary prevention of alcohol problems with young adults. Baer J S, Marlatt G A, McMahon R, J, editors. Newbury Park: Sage; 1993.]
  • Change in number of drinks per week from baseline [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    Items assessing drinking days per week and average drinks per occasion will be multiplied in order to compute number of drinks per week. These items come from the Frequency, Quantity, Max (FQM) measure. [Baer J, S. Etiology and secondary prevention of alcohol problems with young adults. Baer J S, Marlatt G A, McMahon R, J, editors. Newbury Park: Sage; 1993.]
  • Change in peak drinks on one occasion from baseline [ Time Frame: 2 months ]
    The item assessing the number of maximum drinks on one occasion from the Frequency, Quantity, Max (FQM) measure is used. [Baer J, S. Etiology and secondary prevention of alcohol problems with young adults. Baer J S, Marlatt G A, McMahon R, J, editors. Newbury Park: Sage; 1993.]
  • Change in peak drinks on one occasion from baseline [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    The item assessing the maximum number of drinks consumed on one occasion from the Frequency, Quantity, Max (FQM) measure is used. [Baer J, S. Etiology and secondary prevention of alcohol problems with young adults. Baer J S, Marlatt G A, McMahon R, J, editors. Newbury Park: Sage; 1993.]
  • Change in number of negative alcohol-related consequences from baseline [ Time Frame: 2 months ]
    A single item assessing the number of negative consequences experienced out of a list of 8 common negative alcohol-related consequences. This item is adapted from Riley BB, Hughes TL, Wilsnack SC. Validating a hazardous drinking index in a sample of sexual minority women: Reliability, validity, and predictive accuracy. Substance Use and Misuse. 2017;52(1):43-51. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1214150.]
  • Change in number of negative alcohol-related consequences from baseline [ Time Frame: 4 months ]
    A single item assessing the number of negative consequences experienced out of a list of 8 common negative alcohol-related consequences. This item is adapted from Riley BB, Hughes TL, Wilsnack SC. Validating a hazardous drinking index in a sample of sexual minority women: Reliability, validity, and predictive accuracy. Substance Use and Misuse. 2017;52(1):43-51. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1214150.]
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE A Gamified, Social Media Inspired Personalized Normative Feedback Alcohol Intervention for Sexual Minority Women
Official Title  ICMJE PNF 2.0: A Novel, Gamified, Facebook-Integrated Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use and Negative Consequences Among Sexual Minority Women
Brief Summary Sexual minority women in the United States are more likely to drink alcohol, engage in heavy drinking, and experience alcohol-related problems than are heterosexual women. Yet, to date, no evidence-based intervention or prevention efforts have been developed to reduce alcohol consumption among female sexual minority community members. The proposed research seeks to narrow the disparity in alcohol intervention research by examining an innovative gamified personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention to reduce drinking among sexual minority women found to frequent social media sites and overestimate norms related to peers' general alcohol use and drinking to cope with sexual minority stigma. The newly developed GANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment) PNF format takes the well-established core components of a PNF alcohol intervention and delivers these components within an inviting, social media inspired, culturally-tailored online competition. This incognito intervention format is designed to be more appealing, engaging, believable, positively received, and thus effective than standard web-based PNF. The version developed for sexual minority women delivers PNF on alcohol use and stigma-coping behaviors within the context of an online game about sexual minority female stereotypes. Following two introductory rounds of play by a large cohort of sexual minority women, a sub-sample of 500 sexual minority female drinkers will be invited to participate in an evaluation study. Study participants will be randomized to receive 1 of 3 unique sequences of feedback (i.e., Alcohol & Stigma-Coping, Alcohol & Control, or Control topics only) during 2 intervention rounds taking place over a 6-month period. The randomized feedback sequences and multiple rounds of play will allow the research team to evaluate whether PNF on alcohol use reduces sexual minority women's alcohol consumption and negative consequences relative to PNF on control topics (AIM 2: H1), examine whether providing PNF on stigma-coping behaviors in addition to alcohol use further reduces alcohol use and consequences beyond alcohol PNF alone (AIM 2: H2), and identify mediators and moderators of intervention effectiveness (AIM 3).
Detailed Description

This incognito alcohol intervention is culturally tailored to appeal to heavy social media using sexual minority women residing in the US and ranging in age from 21 to 55 years. Personalized normative feedback on sexual identity and age specific descriptive drinking and stigma-coping norms are delivered to players within the context of an online competition designed to challenge sexual minority women stereotypes and increase visibility. To increase the believability of the normative statistics, players create a social media-inspired profile at registration which includes an optional photo, brief bio, links to social media accounts, and other basic information. Registered players are able to browse the profiles of others and actual norms for all topics are transparently generated by the responses of players taking part in the competition. To increase motivation and engagement, each monthly round of the competition features a point-based reward system, a leader board, and a cash prize that is awarded to the top scorer who demonstrates the greatest accuracy in perceptions of peers. To decrease defensive reactions and increase appeal, feedback topics are ostensibly selected by chance in the game with treatment PNF on alcohol use and stigma-coping behaviors delivered alongside feedback on control topics of high interest to community members (e.g., style, relationships, sex, etc.). Appeal and credibility are also gained through sponsorship and promotion of the competition by several collaborating community organizations trusted as sources for health and social information by sexual minority women.

One round of the game is played each month over a 8 month period. Players are encouraged to browse player profiles before each round and it is made clear that the goal is to grow one's score by submitting accurate guesses and strategic bets on the responses of other players in one's age and sexual identity group. Each round includes questions about 2 to 3 topics ostensibly selected by a slot machine like spinner. For each topic, players make guesses about the behaviors and experiences of other players in their age and sexual identity group, choose amounts of points to bet on these guesses being true of the group, and then contribute to actual group norms by answering parallel questions. Each round is "open" for 30 days. Once closed, players are sent a text message containing a private link at which they can see detailed results (PNF) for the round, view the leaderboard and cash prize winner, and play the next round.

Packaging this intervention as a fun, identity-relevant competition for sexual minority women rather than a transparent alcohol intervention study allows feasibility and efficacy to be evaluated simultaneously, with a high degree of ecological validity. First, 1200 sexual minority women will be recruited to take part in the online competition. No participation-based incentives will be offered to players beyond the opportunity to compete for a variable cash prize each round. Then, following two initial rounds of play, a sub-sample of 500 drinkers will be invited to take part in an incentivized evaluation study after answering alcohol use questions in Round 3. Upon consenting to participate in the evaluation study, participants will be randomized to receive 1 of 3 unique sequences of feedback (i.e., Alcohol & Stigma-Coping, Alcohol & Control, or Control only) during intervention Rounds 3 and 4. Short-term reductions in alcohol use will be assessed in Round 6 of the competition where players will be prompted to guess, bet on, and answer alcohol use and control topic questions for a second time (i.e., Replay Bonus Round; 2 month follow-up). Following all rounds of the competition, a short survey will assess the alcohol use and negative consequences of Evaluation Study participants a final time (4 month follow-up).

Feasibility analysis will examine engagement with the online competition platform and sustainability of play in the absence of traditional study participation incentives among players not involved in the Evaluation Study. Efficacy analysis will focus on study participants randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 feedback conditions in order to: 1) evaluate whether PNF on alcohol use reduces sexual minority women's alcohol consumption and negative consequences relative to PNF on control topics; 2) examine whether providing PNF on stigma-coping behaviors in addition to alcohol use further reduces alcohol use and consequences beyond alcohol PNF; and, 3) identify mediators and moderators of intervention effectiveness.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
The web app is programmed to invite an eligible sub-sample of participants from the larger population to take part in an evaluation study during the competition's 3rd monthly round. Those who consent to participate are automatically randomized by Qualtrics Research Suite to receive 1 of 3 unique sequences of feedback (i.e., Alcohol & Stigma-Coping, Alcohol & Control, or Control topics only) during 2 intervention rounds taking place during a 6-month period.
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Condition  ICMJE
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Alcohol Abuse
  • Alcohol; Harmful Use
Intervention  ICMJE Behavioral: Personalized Normative Feedback
Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF) is a popular social norms-based intervention strategy which presents individuals with a personalized, individual report designed to correct misperceived peer norms using a graphical display. Bar charts compare actual alcohol use statistics for the peer group to A) participants' estimates of peer drinking and, B) their own self-reported drinking.
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Alcohol + Stigma Coping PNF
    Participants randomized to this condition will receive gamified personalized normative feedback on their alcohol use after answering questions about alcohol use and two control topics in Round 3. Then, in the very next Round of the competition (Round 4), these participants will receive gamified personalized normative feedback on their stigma coping behaviors after answering questions about their stigma coping behaviors and two control topics.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Personalized Normative Feedback
  • Experimental: Alcohol + Control PNF
    Participants randomized to this condition will receive gamified personalized normative feedback on their alcohol use after answering questions about alcohol use and control topics in Round 3. Then, in the very next Round of the competition (Round 4), these participants will receive gamified personalized normative feedback on one control topic (Relationships) after answering questions about their stigma coping behaviors and two control topics.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Personalized Normative Feedback
  • Control PNF
    Participants randomized to the control arm will answer questions about the same topics as participants in the other conditions in Round 3 (Alcohol Use & Control) and Round 4 (Stigma-Coping & Control). However, in both Rounds 3 and 4 they will receive gamified PNF on control topics.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Personalized Normative Feedback
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 12, 2019)
499
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 19, 2019)
500
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE October 10, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date October 10, 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Registered for the online competition
  • Accept the competition's Terms of Service & Privacy Policy
  • Endorses a lesbian, bisexual, or queer female sexual identity
  • Is between the ages of 21 and 55 years
  • Has consumed 3 or more drinks on at least one occasion during the previous 2 months OR consumes alcohol 3 or more days per week
  • Lives in North America (US or Canada)
  • Does not have a partner or housemate participating
  • Accepts invitation and consents to participate in the Evaluation Study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Does not register for the online competition.
  • Does not accept the competition's Terms of Service & Privacy Policy
  • Is younger than 21 years of age or older than 55 years of age.
  • Has NOT consumed 3 or more drinks on at least one occasion during the previous 2 months AND drinks less than 3 days per week
  • Lives outside of North America
  • Has a partner or housemate participating
  • Declines invitation
  • Does not consent to participate in the Evaluation Study
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
Gender Based Eligibility: Yes
Gender Eligibility Description: Participants must endorse a lesbian, bisexual, or queer female sexual identity. Both the larger competition and the Evaluation Study are trans-inclusive. That is, individuals who endorse one of these sexual minority identities and presently endorse a female gender identity (regardless of whether their birth sex is female) may take part in the competition and the Evaluation Study.
Ages  ICMJE 21 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT03884478
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 1R21AA025767-01A1( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
1R21AA025767-01A1 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: A de-identified longitudinal dataset containing data from Evaluation Study participants at will be made available to researchers 1 year after the initial publication of results. This data set will include participant demographics and outcome measures assessed at baseline (Round 3), the 2 month follow-up (Round 6), and the 4 month follow-up (a survey following the last round of the competition). A data dictionary will be provided.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Supporting Materials: Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Time Frame: 1 year following the publication of results.
Access Criteria: The Office of Sponsored Research at Loyola Marymount University is currently working with the University's IT department to develop a data repository for the purpose of data and resource sharing. Study materials and data will be made available to the public on a secure web portal.
Responsible Party Loyola Marymount University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Loyola Marymount University
Collaborators  ICMJE National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Investigators  ICMJE Not Provided
PRS Account Loyola Marymount University
Verification Date February 2020

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP