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The Efficacy Of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy In Treatment Induced Neuropathy Of Diabetes

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02915263
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : September 27, 2016
Last Update Posted : July 15, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Grifols Biologicals, LLC
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Christopher Gibbons, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE August 8, 2016
First Posted Date  ICMJE September 27, 2016
Last Update Posted Date July 15, 2020
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE September 11, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date September 2021   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 2, 2017)
  • Change in sensory neuropathy as measured by the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS). [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first infusion ]
    The Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS) was developed specifically to detect and quantify early small-fiber sensory neuropathy and to recognize modest changes in sensory severity and distribution.
  • Change in neuropathic pain severity as measured by the pain visual analogue scores (VAS). [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first infusion ]
    The visual analog scale (VAS) of pain allows for quantification of neuropathic pain (line from 0: no pain to 10:worst pain)
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 23, 2016)
  • Change in sensory neuropathy as measured by the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS). [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first IVIG infusion ]
  • Change in neuropathic pain severity as measured by the pain visual analogue scores (VAS). [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first IVIG infusion ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 2, 2017)
  • Change in neuropathy severity as measured by skin biopsies. [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first infusion ]
    Skin biopsies will be evaluated by measuring the Intra-epidermal nerve fiber density
  • Change in Autonomic Neuropathy as measured by standardized autonomic nervous system testing. [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first infusion ]
    The standardized autonomic nervous system testing evaluates the heart rate variability to paced breathing, the heart rate and blood pressure response to the Valsalva maneuver, the blood pressure response to tilt table testing, and sudomotor function testing.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 23, 2016)
  • Change in neuropathy severity as measured by skin biopsies. [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first IVIG infusion ]
    Skin biopsies will be evaluated by measuring the Intra-epidermal nerve fiber density
  • Change in Autonomic Neuropathy as measured by standardized autonomic nervous system testing. [ Time Frame: 7 weeks after first IVIG infusion ]
    The standardized autonomic nervous system testing evaluates the heart rate variability to paced breathing, the heart rate and blood pressure response to the Valsalva maneuver, the blood pressure response to tilt table testing, and sudomotor function testing.
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE The Efficacy Of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy In Treatment Induced Neuropathy Of Diabetes
Official Title  ICMJE A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial To Evaluate The Efficacy Of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy In Treatment Induced Neuropathy Of Diabetes
Brief Summary

The goal of this pilot study is to obtain preliminary data on the magnitude of the treatment effect of IVIG on the neuropathic pain and neuropathy severity associated with treatment induced neuropathy (TIND).

The investigators hypothesize that immune globulin, administered intravenously (IVIG), will reduce the pain associated with treatment induced neuropathy and reduce the neuropathy severity.

Treatment induced neuropathy in diabetes, is an iatrogenic complications of diabetes. The preliminary data will be used to power a larger treatment trial, and to aid the understanding of the mitigating factors in the treatment response.

Detailed Description

Treatment induced neuropathy of diabetes (TIND), also referred to as insulin neuritis, is thought to be a rare iatrogenic cause of neuropathy that occurs in the setting of rapid glycemic control in individuals with a history of prolonged hyperglycemia.

In a recent paper, the investigators reported that a systematic review of all patients seen in a tertiary diabetic neuropathy referral center resulted in the diagnosis of TIND in >10% of patients seen over a 5 year period of time. These individuals developed symptoms of neuropathy as a consequence of a sudden improvement in glycemic control. The neuropathy associated with TIND is a painful small fiber and autonomic neuropathy of acute onset, but is also associated with the simultaneous development of retinopathy and nephropathy.

TIND differs from the most prevalent generalized neuropathy of diabetes, the distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, in several respects. The neuropathic pain has an acute onset, appearing within 8 weeks of glycemic change in contrast to the more insidious onset in the Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP). The pain in TIND is more severe, and poorly responsive to interventions including opioids, whereas most patients with DSP respond to non-opioid interventions. Although the distribution of the pain is length dependent in individuals with TIND, it is frequently far more extensive than in DSP and the associated allodynia and hyperalgesia are much more prevalent. Autonomic symptoms and signs are common, prominent and appear acutely, in contrast to the relatively lower prevalence, gradual onset and slow progression in DSP. Finally, both the pain and autonomic features may be reversible in some patients.

The pathogenic mechanisms whereby this change in glucose results in nerve damage and/or dysfunction are not known. Proposed mechanisms include endoneurial ischemia due to epineurial arterio-venous shunts, apoptosis due to glucose deprivation, microvascular neuronal damage due to recurrent hypoglycemia and ectopic firing of regenerating axon sprouts, but these possibilities are unproven. A potential role for inflammation as a cause of TIND is supported by studies showing an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines provoked by experimental hypoglycemia. This is reinforced by the association of hyperalgesia with prior exposure to hypoglycemia.

Other microvascular complications are commonly seen in patients with TIND. The simultaneous development of TIND, retinopathy and nephropathy in our cohort suggests a common systemic mechanism likely resulting in microvascular disease. Prior reports of 'early worsening retinopathy' associate a greater risk of retinopathy development with every percentage point decrease in the glycosylated hemoglobin, a result that parallels the neuropathy development in TIND. Furthermore, a link between hypoglycemia, production in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the development of retinopathy has been proposed.

Treatment induced neuropathy is an iatrogenic cause of an acute, painful autonomic neuropathy in patients with poor glycemic control. Although the underlying mechanism is not yet known, there is a clear relationship between a rapid rate of glycemic control and the development of microvascular complications. Our preliminary data on upregulation of cytokines in individuals with TIND, and the similar findings noted in early worsening retinopathy, suggest the possibility that early intervention may improve outcomes.

The investigators have studied over 100 individuals with TIND in a longitudinal fashion. The characteristic disease progression is well described and related to the magnitude of the change in HbA1c. All patients develop severe neuropathic pain and progressive small fiber and autonomic neuropathy. The neuropathy progresses over 18-24 months and then may gradually improve.

The investigators have studied 4 patients with TIND that developed the acute onset of autonomic and peripheral neuropathy in the setting of rapid glycemic control. All 4 individuals had regular detailed neurological examinations, skin biopsy analysis of nerve fiber density, autonomic function testing and retinal examinations.

Within 4 weeks of the onset of neuropathic pain (within 8 weeks of the change in glucose levels), they were offered a trial of immune globulin administration at a dose of 2grams/kg divided into 5 doses of 0.4 grams/kg for 5 days. In 3 of 4 patients there was significant improvement in neuropathic pain (>50%) and autonomic dysfunction with 4 weeks of immune globulin administration. In addition, there was a clinically significant increase in intra-epidermal nerve fiber density after 6 months (findings not seen in the large cohort of individuals that were untreated). One patient did not exhibit any clear improvement in neuropathic pain or autonomic dysfunction. Prior to immune globulin administration the investigators measured circulating cytokine levels in these 4 individuals. Those that responded tended to have higher circulating cytokine levels than that the individual that did not.

The investigators propose a prospective therapeutic study to determine the efficacy of IVIG in improving both neuropathic pain and nerve fiber structure and function in individuals with TIND. In addition, the investigators will attempt to define mechanisms that will predict success in this trial.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetic Neuropathies
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: IGIV-C
    Gamunex-C [immune globulin injection (human) 10% caprylate/chromatography purified] is a sterile solution of human immune globulin protein.
    Other Names:
    • Gamunex-C Liquid
    • Immune globulin injection (human), 10% caprylate/chromatography purified
  • Drug: 0.9% Sodium Chloride
    Sodium Chloride (also known as saline) is a solution of sodium chloride, or salt, and sterile water.
    Other Names:
    • Saline
    • 0.9%NaCl
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Placebo Comparator: 0.9% Sodium Chloride
    The study will include a total 20 individuals. Subjects will be randomized equally to treatment or placebo. The placebo will consist of 0.9% Sodium Chloride per day over 5 days. Participants who are randomized to placebo will receive the same volume as they would if they were randomized to IVIG (i.e.: as if receiving IVIG at 2gm/kg) through a peripheral IV line.
    Intervention: Drug: 0.9% Sodium Chloride
  • Experimental: IGIV-C
    The study will include a total 20 individuals. Subjects will be randomized equally to treatment or placebo. The treatment will consist of IVIG administered at 2 grams/kg divided over 5 days, with a follow up treatment 3 weeks (+/-3 days) later of IVIG 1gram/kg administered over 2 day (or placebo).
    Intervention: Drug: IGIV-C
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 23, 2016)
20
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE September 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date September 2021   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes and treatment induced neuropathy (defined by the onset of neuropathic pain and signs of small fiber or autonomic neuropathy within 8 weeks of a change in HbA1C exceeding 3 points over 3 months).
  • Ages 18-60.
  • BMI ≤ 30.
  • Nonsmoker.
  • Consumption of up to 4 alcoholic beverages per week.
  • No history of substance abuse or dependence with 1 year prior to screening.
  • Normal ECG.
  • Vital Signs within normal range (with the exception of a resting tachycardia which is expected in all subjects due to neuropathic pain; research subjects with a heart rate greater than 110 bpm, however, will be excluded).
  • CBC, standard chemistry panel within normal limits.
  • Standard coagulation studies (within BIDMC laboratory normal limits) including PT, PTT, platelets.
  • D-dimer <0.05 FEU.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Female subjects of childbearing potential with a positive urine pregnancy test.
  • BMI >30.
  • No other known cause of neuropathy (chemotherapy, toxins, other medical disorder - all subjects have diabetes so this would not be an exclusionary factor).
  • Anticoagulation with warfarin, aspirin & Plavix together or other anticoagulant that would place subjects at undue risk of bleeding from a skin biopsy. Aspirin or Plavix alone are not an exclusion criterion.
  • Clinically active coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease.
  • Cardiac insufficiency (NYHA Grade III-IV), cardiomyopathy, significant cardiac dysrhythmia requiring treatment, unstable advanced ischemic heart disease.
  • History of congenital or acquired coagulopathy or thromboembolic disease before the age of 55 or arterial thromboembolic disease before the age of 45.
  • History of Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) and/or Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
  • Evidence of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis at screening including limb swelling, pain or discoloration and or risk of thrombotic event as assessed by Wells criteria.
  • Known history of blood hyperviscosity.
  • Evidence of severe vascular disease (history of ulceration, poor wound healing, vascular claudication).
  • History of allergic reaction to local anesthesia for skin biopsies or history of scarring or keloid formation.
  • History of renal dysfunction that includes glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min, or creatinine of >2.0 mg/dL.
  • Known IGA deficiency with antibodies to IgA.
  • History of hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis or severe systemic response to immunoglobulin, blood or plasma derived products.
  • Positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) prior to administration or history of hemolytic anemia.
  • Subject who is unlikely to comply with the study protocol, or in the opinion of the investigator, would not be a suitable candidate for participation in the study.

Criteria for discontinuation:

  • Pregnancy: women of childbearing potential will have a urine pregnancy test at every visit. Subjects who become pregnant will be discontinued from the study.
  • A Grade 3 or higher allergic reaction within 24 hours of IVIG/Placebo infusion.
  • Any thromboembolic events (e.g. myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thromboembolism)
  • Clinically significant hematologic complications (e.g. hemolysis and/or neutropenia).
  • Withdrawal by subject
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE
Contact: Katherine Senechal 617-632-8454 ksenecha@bidmc.harvard.edu
Contact: Johanna Celli 617-632-8454 jcelli@bidmc.harvard.edu
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02915263
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 2016P000166
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Responsible Party Christopher Gibbons, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Collaborators  ICMJE Grifols Biologicals, LLC
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Christopher Gibbons, MD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Cednter
PRS Account Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Verification Date July 2020

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP