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IMT for Primary Clostridium Difficile Infection

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02301000
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Slow recruitment in pilot phase. A follow-up trial is launched (NCT03796650).)
First Posted : November 25, 2014
Last Update Posted : September 22, 2020
University of Oslo
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Kjetil Garborg, Oslo University Hospital

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE November 18, 2014
First Posted Date  ICMJE November 25, 2014
Last Update Posted Date September 22, 2020
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE February 22, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date November 16, 2017   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 21, 2014)
Number of participants with cure without recurrence [ Time Frame: 70 days ]
Absence of diarrhea and no signs of recurrent CDI within 70 days
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 21, 2014)
  • Number of participants without diarrhea [ Time Frame: 35 days ]
    Absence of diarrhea
  • Number of participants in which there was a need to change treatment [ Time Frame: 4 days ]
    In the case of primary treatment failure, a change of treatment strategy will be considered according to current guidelines.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: November 21, 2014)
Number of participants with adverse events related to CDI treatment [ Time Frame: 1-70 days ]
Patients will be contacted at 4, 35 and 70 days to identify any adverse events related to the treatment. Patients can contact a study representative at any time in case of suspected adverse events.
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Same as current
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE IMT for Primary Clostridium Difficile Infection
Official Title  ICMJE Intestinal Microbiota Therapy Versus Metronidazole for Primary Clostridium Difficile Infection: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Brief Summary This is a randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of a 10-day course of per oral metronidazole versus a one-time rectal instillation of an anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota for the treatment of a first occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Recurrent CDI is common after standard antibiotic treatment. We hypothesize that the instillation of a healthy intestinal microbiota will be more effective in inducing a durable cure than metronidazole for primary CDI.
Detailed Description

Up to one third of patients with clostridium difficile infection treated with antibiotics experience recurrent or relapsing symptoms within a few weeks. Even with subsequent antibiotic treatment, multiple recurrences/relapses are frequent. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be significantly more effective in curing recurrent CDI than repeated antibiotic treatment. In current guidelines, FMT is proposed as a treatment option after multiple recurrences/relapses of CDI. The rationale to reserve transplantation of donor feces for recurrent and difficult cases of CDI is a possible risk of pathogen transmittance and the cumbersome and costly process of finding a donor and screen for communicable disease. The effect of FMT for recurrent CDI, however, suggests that this therapy may be more effective than antibiotics in inducing a durable cure also for primary CDI.

We aim to use an anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM) that has been extensively tested for pathogens, from a donor screened for communicable diseases, to avoid the need for a case-by-case donor screening. The term Intestinal Microbiota Therapy (IMT) will be used to describe the ACHIM treatment.

Patients with a first occurrence of CDI defined by diarrhea, as defined by the World Health Organization, and a positive stool test for toxigenic Clostridium difficile will be randomized 1:1 to either a 10-day course of metronidazole 400 mg t.i.d. or a rectal instillation of 60 ml ACHIM suspension.

Patients will be contacted on day 4 by an unblinded study investigator and on days 35 and 70 by a blinded study investigator to evaluate the treatment effect. In addition, the patients will register the frequency of bowel movements on days 1-4, 7, 14 and 21.

In the case of clinical deterioration, appropriate measures will be undertaken according to current guidelines.

A second instillation of ACHIM suspension will be considered on day 4 in the absence of clinical improvement.

The primary endpoint is the rate of primary cure from CDI and no sign of relapse/recurrence within 70 days, or persistent diarrhea that could be explained by other causes with three consecutive negative stool tests for toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

Treatment failure is defined as persistent diarrhea with a positive stool test for toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

Relapsing or recurrent CDI is defined as diarrhea and a positive stool test for toxigenic Clostridium difficile within 70 days of treatment initiation after an initial resolution of diarrhea.

Preliminary sample size is estimated from a hypothesis of a primary cure rate without recurrence within 70 days of 75 % with metronidazole vs. 87.5 % with IMT.

An interim analysis is planned after inclusion of the first 40 patients to guide the final sample size estimation.

Patients will be recruited at six hospitals in South-East Norway.

Before the start of the pilot phase, an independent data safety and monitoring board (DSMB) was established to monitor potential adverse events, and to advise the study team on the results of the pilot phase of the trial with regard to benefits and harms of the treatment, recruitment, and organization.

We recognized a slower than anticipated recruitment during the pilot phase of the trial. The slow recruitment was due to the current clinical practice of rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy by clinicians, before the trial team could ascertain eligible patients for enrolment.

After the inclusion of 20 eligible patients with concluded follow-up in January 2018, the DSMB met with the trial investigators on January 29 (2018), to discuss the results of the pilot phase. In light of the results, the DSMB recommended to start preparations for the main phase of the trial to validate the magnitude of the effects of FMT in primary CDI. Further, due to the nature of the results of the pilot and its potential implications on clinical practice, the DSMB recommended publication of the pilot data. This was also deemed necessary for adequate recruitment of the main trial.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Phase 3
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Clostridium Difficile Infection
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Biological: Intestinal microbiota therapy
    60 ml of ACHIM suspension will be administered through a rectal tube
    Other Name: Anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota
  • Drug: Metronidazole
    Peroral metronidazole 400 mg t.i.d. for ten days
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Intestinal microbiota therapy
    The patients allocated to this group will receive 60 ml of the anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota through a rectal catheter.
    Intervention: Biological: Intestinal microbiota therapy
  • Active Comparator: Metronidazole
    The patients allocated to this group will receive metronidazole 400 mg t.i.d. for 10 days
    Intervention: Drug: Metronidazole
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Terminated
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 18, 2020)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 21, 2014)
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE November 16, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date November 16, 2017   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diarrhea as defined by the World Health Organization (passage of 3 or more loose or liquid stools (i.e. taking the shape of the receptacle or corresponding to Bristol stool chart types 5-7) per day, or more frequently than is normal for the individual, and
  • Positive fecal test for toxigenic Clostridium difficile, and
  • No evidence of CDI during the previous year.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Known presence of other stool pathogens known to cause diarrhea.
  • Pregnancy and nursing.
  • Patients with ongoing antibiotic treatment for other infections that cannot be stopped for at least 12 hours.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Patients incapable of providing informed consent.
  • Patients with <3 months life expectancy.
  • Serious immunodeficiency caused by chemotherapy or other medication.
  • Active immunocompromising disease.
  • Patients unable to comply with protocol requirements.
  • Patients in need of intensive care who are American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status classification IV and V.
  • Known hypersensitivity to Metronidazole
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Norway
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02301000
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE IMT CDI
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Kjetil Garborg, Oslo University Hospital
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Oslo University Hospital
Collaborators  ICMJE University of Oslo
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Chair: Michael Bretthauer, Ph.d. University of Oslo
Principal Investigator: Kjetil K Garborg, MD, Ph.d. Oslo University Hospital
PRS Account Oslo University Hospital
Verification Date September 2020

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP