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Implementing Tobacco Use Guidelines in Community Health Centers in Vietnam

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01967654
Recruitment Status : Withdrawn
First Posted : October 23, 2013
Last Update Posted : August 4, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NYU Langone Health

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 18, 2013
First Posted Date  ICMJE October 23, 2013
Last Update Posted Date August 4, 2015
Study Start Date  ICMJE January 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date August 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 18, 2013)
Adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines [ Time Frame: 4-6 weeks ]
To assess the primary outcome of provider adherence to tobacco treatment guidelines, the investigators will conduct patient exit interviews (PEI) (surveys conducted immediately after the patient visit) with 50 smokers pre and 50 postimplementation at each site (1300 in each study period).
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 18, 2013)
Smoking abstinence [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
Using accepted standards for measuring cessation outcomes, all patients who complete a PEI in the post intervention period will be followed prospectively to assess 3 and 6 month 7-day point prevalence abstinence, defined as any smoking (even a puff) in the past 7 days. Surveys will be conducted in person and smoking abstinence will be validated using carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring with abstinence defined as a CO<10ppm.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Implementing Tobacco Use Guidelines in Community Health Centers in Vietnam
Official Title  ICMJE Not Provided
Brief Summary Vietnam has a smoking prevalence that is the second highest among South East Asian countries (SEACs). With a population of approximately 90 million, Vietnam also has the second largest total number of adult smokers (over 16 million) in SEA. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), most reductions in mortality from tobacco use in the near future will be achieved through helping current users quit. Tobacco use treatment, as defined by the U.S. Preventive Health Service Guideline (Guideline) on Treating Tobacco use and Dependence, is evidence-based and highly cost-effective. Yet, in the U.S. and globally, adoption of recommended care is suboptimal. The objective of this proposal is to fill the current research-to-practice gap by conducting a randomized controlled trial that compares the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of two practical and highly replicable strategies for implementing evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of tobacco use in public health clinics in Vietnam. The proposed implementation strategies draw on evidence-based approaches, and the WHO's recently released guidelines for implementing Article 14 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The FCTC is an evidence-based treaty that was developed by the WHO in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic. Vietnam ratified the FCTC in 2004; however, they have not taken steps to implement Article 14 which specifies the need to integrate best practices for treating tobacco use and dependence into routine preventive care. The proposed implementation strategies also build on the growing literature that supports the effectiveness of integrating community health workers as members of the health care team to improve access to preventive services.
Detailed Description

Aim 1: To conduct a formative evaluation.

The formative evaluation has three components: 1) Key informant interviews with leaders in the public health sector responsible for developing and implementing policy in Vietnam to assess contextual factors (e.g. district level policies) that may influence implementation and dissemination; 2) Focus groups with current smokers to inform adaptations to the current training curriculum and counseling manual; and 3) baseline study site assessments to assess organizational readiness to change and current policies and practices to inform necessary adaptations to the proposed system changes.The investigators will develop semi-structured interview and focus group guides and adapt survey tools guided by the conceptual model described above as well as a robust literature on factors that influence implementation and dissemination.

Data collection. 1) Key informant interviews. The investigators will conduct key informant interviews with at least one senior level staff person from the following stakeholder groups: a) MOH central level agencies involved in tobacco control such as VINACOSH, and the Ministries of Education and Training and Science and Technology; b) Executive Directors of the Vietnam Medical Association and the Vietnam Public Health Association; c) WHO Vietnam; d) at the provincial level, a representative from the Department of Health and Preventive Medicine Center; and e) four district health directors in the two target provinces (HaNoi and Thai Nguyen) for a total of about 16 interviews. The investigators use a semi-structured interview guide organized by constructs found to influence implementation and dissemination outcomes.52-56 These include external factors (tobacco control policies, national priorities for resource allocation and relative priority of tobacco control, relative priority of smoking cessation) perceived barriers to implementing guideline recommended cessation services, perceived commitment of leadership in and outside the MOH, perceived challenges to maintaining and disseminating changes in service delivery at the local and province level. Recruitment for key informant interviews: Using a purposive sampling approach, ISMS will leverage their contacts to assist in recruiting stakeholders for the key informant interviews through email invitations to participate. Research staff will then follow-up by telephone to enroll stakeholders in the study. The investigators will conduct these interviews. 2) Focus groups: An experienced facilitator from ISMS will conduct six focus groups (3 in each study district) with current smokers (6-8 participants, 4 male and 2 female groups). The focus groups will assess expectations about health benefits of quitting, past cessation history, including availability, affordability and use of cessation medications, knowledge of cessation resources, and attitudes towards the proposed intervention. There is a relatively large database on the knowledge and attitudes about tobacco use among smokers in Vietnam. Therefore, the groups will focus more on access to treatment, attitudes towards pharmacotherapy and treatment preferences. Inclusion/exclusion criteria include: current smoker (smoked in past 7 days), patient of a CHC in one of the two study districts, and age 18 and over. Recruitment for focus groups: the same methods as were used to recruit patients to the pilot study. Patients will be screened for current tobacco use in the CHCs, asked to participate if they meet eligibility criteria and given a date and time for the meeting. Consent will be obtained at the time of the focus group. 3) Baseline study site assessments: In all enrolled study sites the following will be conducted: a) an assessment of baseline organizational characteristics. This includes data on setting-level variables shown to influence the implementation of practice guidelines including number of FTE staff, clinic volume, policies and systems. A a practice environment checklist will be used to inventory current policies, workflow, systems (e.g. chart systems) and staff roles and responsibilities in general, and specifically related to tobacco use treatment. b)Semi-structured interviews with clinical and administrative key informants (clinical director, 2 CHWs and 3 providers per site) to supplement the checklist data and to elaborate on potential barriers and facilitators for tobacco use treatment. c) A provider and CHW survey (tested in the pilot research and based on a survey from the WHO that was validated in Vietnamese). Surveys will assess baseline knowledge, attitudes and current practice patterns related to tobacco use treatment to inform additional modifications in training materials. d) Organizational readiness to change: provider surveys will include the Change Process Capability Questionnaire(CPCQ), a validated tool that is applicable to primary care practice.

AIM 2: To compare the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of two implementation strategies to increase adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines, and AIM 3: To explore organizational factors hypothesized to influence the relationship between the implementation strategies and implementation effectiveness. The Aims will be combined for the remainder of the Approach section because of overlaps in design and data collection.

A two arm, randomized trial comparing approach will be used: ARM 1) technical assistance, training, and clinical reminder system (TTC), and ARM 2) TTC+ referral to a CHW for additional counseling and follow-up. The investigators will conduct a baseline assessment of provider adherence to tobacco use treatment by collecting patient exit interviews (PEIs) (i.e., surveys conducted immediately after the patient visit) from 50 patients per site who meet eligibility criteria as current smokers. We will then implement the components of ARM 1 and 2. At 12 months post implementation we will conduct PEIs with another 50 smokers per site. These patients will be asked to consent to follow-up surveys at 3 and 6 months to assess smoking abstinence.

Study Site eligibility and recruitment. The investigators have chosen two provinces to represent both an urban and rural setting. Thai Nguyen and Hanoi The district we have selected in Hanoi is representative of those CHCs located in the central part of the city and the district in Thai Nguyen is representative of the rural CHCs in that province. Site criteria include having at least one physician, >4 allied health care professional staff, >5 CHWs and a patient population of at least 4000. Using methods for site recruitment used by ISMS, the Director of the District Health Centers will introduce our study to all CHCs that fit these criteria through a letter of introduction and follow-up telephone or in person contacts. Among those expressing interest, we will randomly select 26 CHCs (13 rural and 13 urban). Sites will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention conditions within urban and rural strata. We will recruit sites in 3 successive waves.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Tobacco Use Cessation
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Other: Technical Assistance, training and clinical reminders
  • Other: Referral to Community Health Worker
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Technical assistance, training, plus clinical reminder system
    To assess the contextual factors of the intervention settings (district level policies and organizational level characteristics) that may influence tobacco use treatment in CHCs and to inform additional modifications to the proposed implementation strategies.
    Intervention: Other: Technical Assistance, training and clinical reminders
  • Experimental: TTC + referral to community health workers
    To compare the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of two multi component implementation strategies.
    Intervention: Other: Referral to Community Health Worker
Publications * Shelley D, VanDevanter N, Cleland CC, Nguyen L, Nguyen N. Implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in community health centers in Vietnam. Implement Sci. 2015 Oct 9;10:142. doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0328-8.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Withdrawn
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 3, 2015)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 18, 2013)
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE August 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date August 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patient eligibility:
  • Current patients at community health center for routine visit
  • 18 years or older
  • Current or regular smoker (>1 cigarette in past 7 days)
  • Willingness to complete survey
  • Provider eligibility:
  • Provider at community health center
  • 18 years or older
  • Willingness to complete survey or interview
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Vietnam
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01967654
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 13-00413
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party NYU Langone Health
Study Sponsor  ICMJE NYU Langone Health
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Donna Shelley, MD, MPH NYU School of Medicine
PRS Account NYU Langone Health
Verification Date August 2015

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP