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Comparison of Analgesic Effect of Magnesium Added to Ropivacaine and Ropivacaine Alone in Caudal Analgesia on Postoperative Pain Control in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Repair

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01679353
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 6, 2012
Last Update Posted : June 12, 2014
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Yonsei University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE August 27, 2012
First Posted Date  ICMJE September 6, 2012
Last Update Posted Date June 12, 2014
Study Start Date  ICMJE September 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: June 10, 2014)
The number of children who required analgesics [ Time Frame: at 24 and 48 hours after surgery ]
Primary outcome is defined as the number of patients who required analgesics after discharge. Postoperative pain at home is assessed by parent using the PPPM scale that consists of 15 questions requiring a "yes" or "no" answer (yes = 1 point and no = 0 point). A PPPM score ≥ 6 by parent's observation is considered to represent clinically significant pain, requiring analgesics. The PPPM is a 15-item observational checklist measure of pain intensity that was designed to be used by parents to support research and clinical postoperative care for children at home.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 2, 2012)
Time to first analgesic rescue medication [ Time Frame: 24 hour from the end of surgery ]
The time to first supplemental oral analgesic medication demand was defined as the time from the end of surgery to the first registration of a PPPM (Parents Postoperative Pain Measurement, 0 - 15) ≥ 6 by parent's observation.
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Comparison of Analgesic Effect of Magnesium Added to Ropivacaine and Ropivacaine Alone in Caudal Analgesia on Postoperative Pain Control in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Repair
Official Title  ICMJE Not Provided
Brief Summary

A caudal anesthesia is one of the most commonly used technique providing intra and postoperative analgesia in pediatric low abdominal surgery. The practice of adding adjunct analgesic drugs to local anesthetics for caudal block is common. The most commonly used drugs are opioids, clonidine, and ketamine. However, their use has been limited by adverse effects in children.

Recently, the importance of magnesium in analgesic effects has been increased. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It has antinociceptive effects in human and these effects are primarily based on the regulation of calcium influx into the cell. Magnesium is a physiological calcium antagonist and blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and such NMDA antagonism prevents the central sensitization from nociceptive stimulation. Many study suggested that epidurally administered magnesium could reduce the postoperative pain in adults. But few studies are available about the use of magnesium in pediatrics.

The investigators performed prospective randomized double-blind study to examine the analgesic effect of magnesium added to ropivacaine and ropivacaine alone in caudal analgesia on postoperative pain control in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

80 children (aged 2- 6 yr) undergoing inguinal hernia repair were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups. Normal saline 0.5mL added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0 ml/kg was administered to Group R , Magnesium 50mg (Magnesium 10% 0.5mL)added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0ml/kg to Group MR. Postoperative pain was recorded at 30min and 1,2,3 h by using Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, 0-10) and Faces Legs Activity Cry Consolability tool (FLACC, 0-10). Participants will be followed for the duration of hospital stay, an expected average of 3 hours.

After discharge, rescue analgesic consumption, pain scores (Parents Postoperative Pain Measurement, PPPM), and adverse effects were evaluated for 48h.

The time to first supplemental oral analgesic medication demand was defined as the time from the end of surgery to the first registration of a PPPM( 0 - 15) ≥ 6 by parent's observation. 48 hours after surgery, reports of delayed side effects and demands for rescue analgesics from the child were gathered from parents via a telephone interview.

Detailed Description Not Provided
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Inguinal Hernia
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: caudal block
    After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups. Normal saline 0.5mL added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0 ml/kg was administered to Group R , Magnesium 50mg (Magnesium 10% 0.5mL)added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0ml/kg to Group MR.
  • Drug: normal saline 0.5ml
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Placebo Comparator: placebo group
    normal saline 0.5ml
    Intervention: Drug: normal saline 0.5ml
  • Experimental: magnesum group
    After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups. Normal saline 0.5mL added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0 ml/kg was administered to Group R , Magnesium 50mg (Magnesium 10% 0.5mL)added to ropivacaine 0.15% 1.0ml/kg to Group MR.
    Intervention: Drug: caudal block
Publications * Farouk S. Pre-incisional epidural magnesium provides pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth. 2008 Nov;101(5):694-9. doi: 10.1093/bja/aen274. Epub 2008 Sep 26.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: September 2, 2012)
80
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE January 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • ASA status I-II,
  • children aged 2 to 6 yr
  • weight under 20kg
  • undergoing inguinal hernia repair

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Hypersensitivity fo any local anesthetics,
  • bleeding diathesis, infections at puncture sites,
  • pre-existing neurological disease,
  • patients taking Calcium channel block,
  • patients taking opioid
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 2 Years to 6 Years   (Child)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Korea, Republic of
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01679353
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 4-2012-0278
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Yonsei University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Yonsei University
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE Not Provided
PRS Account Yonsei University
Verification Date June 2014

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP