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ACCU-CHEK® Aviva Expert Study: Does Use of a Bolus Advisor Improve Glycemic Control in Patients Not Achieving Optimal Control Using Multiple Daily Injections (MDI)? (ABACUS)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01460446
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 26, 2011
Results First Posted : February 6, 2014
Last Update Posted : February 6, 2014
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hoffmann-La Roche

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE September 22, 2011
First Posted Date  ICMJE October 26, 2011
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE November 14, 2013
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE February 6, 2014
Last Update Posted Date February 6, 2014
Study Start Date  ICMJE October 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date September 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 7, 2014)
Change in Glycosylated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
HbA1C was measured in blood samples at a central laboratory.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 25, 2011)
Change in HbA1c [ Time Frame: baseline and 26 weeks ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 7, 2014)
  • Percentage of Blood Glucose Measurements Within the Blood Glucose Target Range From Screening to Baseline and From Week 23 to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Screening to Week 24 ]
    Participants measured their blood glucose at least 3-4 times daily throughout the study. The mean blood glucose level was calculated for each 3-day period from Baseline to Week 24 and the percentage of 3-day blood glucose levels with the target range of 70-180 mg/dL (3.9-10 mmol/L) was calculated for the 2 reporting periods of Screening to Baseline and Week 23 to Week 24.
  • Number of Symptomatic Hypoglycemic Episodes Per Subject Year From Screening to Baseline and From Week 23 to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Screening to Week 24 ]
    A symptomatic hypoglycemic episode was defined as an event with symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia which was confirmed by a blood glucose reading < 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Symptoms might include but were not limited to sweating, dizziness, lightheadedness, tremors, nervousness, hunger, headaches, and weakness or tiredness.
  • Change in the Mean Amplitude of Glucose Excursion (MAGE) From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: 3 days prior to Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Approximately half of the investigational sites monitored glucose levels in participants enrolled in this study using the DexCom Seven® Plus Continuous Glucose Monitoring device. The device provides glucose measurements every 5 minutes for up to 7 days. The system contains a sensor, transmitter, and receiver. The sensor is a flexible round wire that goes under the skin to read glucose levels. The transmitter snaps into the sensor and wirelessly sends glucose readings to the receiver. Data was obtained from approximately one-third of participants and was used to calculate MAGE. Data were collected in the 3 days prior to Baseline and the Week 24 visit. The standard deviation of the blood glucose measurements in each 3-day period was calculated. For each glucose measurement, the difference from the previous reading was calculated. Absolute differences smaller than the standard deviation were discarded. MAGE is the mean of the remaining difference scores.
  • Percentage of Bolus Opportunities Where the Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert Blood Glucose Meter Bolus Advisor Was Used During the Study [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Participants using the Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert blood glucose meter were encouraged to use the Bolus Advisor utility incorporated into the meter. A bolus opportunity occurs, for example, just before eating a meal.
  • Number of Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert Blood Glucose Meter Bolus Advices Modified Per Day by Participants During the Study [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Participants using the Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert blood glucose meter were encouraged to use the Bolus Advisor utility incorporated into the meter. A bolus opportunity occurs, for example, just before eating a meal.
  • Correct and Incorrect Use of Insulin:Carbohydrate Ratio (I:CHO) and Insulin Sensitivity Factor (ISF) Advice by Participants Using the Aviva Nano Blood Glucose Meter During the Study [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Participants using the Aviva Nano blood glucose meter received individualized advice in how to use their insulin:carbohydrate ratio (I:CHO) and insulin sensitivity factor (ISF) values to determine their insulin dose. The I:CHO ratio advice was considered to have been used correctly if the meal bolus dose the participant indicated in his/her patient diary was in accordance with the dose which could be calculated based upon the participant's total carbohydrate intake and the I:CHO ratio. The ISF advice was considered to have been correctly used if the correction bolus dose the participant indicated in his/her patient diary was in accordance with the dose which could be calculated based upon the participant's blood glucose target, current blood glucose value, and the ISF.
  • Change in Carbohydrate Counting Accuracy From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Participants were asked to assess the carbohydrate content (grams) of 10 standardized meals by using a set of Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) plates, which provide standardized photographs of meals with known carbohydrate values. The mean meal error (MME), an indicator of accuracy, and mean meal absolute error (MMAE), an indicator of variability were calculated from their responses. The MME is defined as the mean of the differences between the estimated carbohydrate content and the actual carbohydrate content over the 10 DAFNE plates. A negative MME indicates an underestimation and a positive MME indicates an overestimation of the actual carbohydrate content. The MMAE is defined as the mean of the absolute value of the differences between the estimated carbohydrate content and the actual carbohydrate content over the 10 DAFNE plates. The MMAE is ≥ 0 with a lower value indicating a better ability to estimate the actual carbohydrate content.
  • Change in the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) Score From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) contains 8 items which can be rated from 0='not at all' to 3='nearly every day'. The total PHQ-8 score is the sum of the responses to the 8 items and ranges from 0 to 24. A lower score indicates less depression. A negative change score indicates improvement.
  • Number of Participants With None, Mild, Moderate, Moderately Severe, and Severe Depression at Baseline and Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The Major Depression Disorder (MDD) scale is derived from the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8) and was used to categorize participants in regard to the severity of their depression. There are 5 categories on the MDD scale: None, mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe. The category for each participant is determined from their PHQ-8 score. A total PHQ-8 score of 0 to 4 represents no significant depressive symptoms. A total PHQ-8 score of 5 to 9 represents mild depressive symptoms; 10 to 14, moderate; 15 to 19, moderately severe; and 20 to 24, severe. A higher score indicates more depression.
  • Change in the Problem Area in Diabetes (PAID) Scale Score From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The Problem Area in Diabetes (PAID) scale contains 20 items which can be rated from 0='not a problem' to 4='serious problem'. The total PAID scale score ranges from 0 to 80 with a higher score indicating more diabetes-related problems. A negative change score indicates improvement.
  • Change in the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS-II) Score From Baseline to Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II (HFS-II) contains 33 items (15 items regarding behavior and 18 items regarding worry) which can be rated from 0='never' to 4='always'). The total HFS-II score ranges from 0 to 132 with a higher score indicating more fear. A negative change score indicates improvement.
  • The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at Baseline (DTSQs) Score and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Change From Baseline (DTSQc) Score [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at Baseline (DTSQs) contains 6 items which can be scored from 0='very bad' to 6='very good'. The total score is the sum of the scores of the 6 items and ranges from 0 to 36. A higher score indicates more satisfaction. This questionnaire was administered at Baseline only. The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for change from Baseline (DTSQc) to study end contains 6 items which can be rated from -3='much worse now' to 3='much better now'). The total score is the sum of the scores of the 6 items and ranges from -18 to 18. A higher score indicates more satisfaction. This questionnaire was administered at the end of the study (Week 24) only.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 25, 2011)
  • Change in time spent within blood glucose (bG) target range [ Time Frame: baseline and 26 weeks ]
  • Frequency and severity of hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: baseline and 26 weeks ]
  • Change in glycemic variability parameters [ Time Frame: baseline and 26 weeks ]
  • Change in magnitude of postprandial glucose excursions [ Time Frame: baseline and 26 weeks ]
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE ACCU-CHEK® Aviva Expert Study: Does Use of a Bolus Advisor Improve Glycemic Control in Patients Not Achieving Optimal Control Using Multiple Daily Injections (MDI)?
Official Title  ICMJE A Prospective, Multi-centre Study With Diabetic Patients Randomized to 24 Weeks Treatment Supported by Either Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert Blood Glucose Meter With an Integrated Bolus Advisor or MDI Standard Therapy With Accu-Chek® Aviva Nano Meter (Without Bolus Advisor)
Brief Summary This clinical, prospective, randomized, multi-center study determined if the use of an insulin bolus advisor improves glycemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in patients failing multiple daily injection/intensified conventional therapy (MDI/ICT).
Detailed Description Eligible participants were randomized to 24 weeks multiple daily injection therapy using either the Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert blood glucose meter with an integrated bolus advisor or the Accu-Chek® Aviva Nano blood glucose meter and manual bolus calculation.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Condition  ICMJE
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Device: Aviva Expert blood glucose meter
  • Device: Aviva Nano blood glucose meter
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Aviva Expert blood glucose meter
    Participants used the Accu-Chek® Aviva Expert blood glucose meter with an integrated bolus advisor to determine the dose of insulin for each injection in their 24 week multiple daily injection therapy.
    Intervention: Device: Aviva Expert blood glucose meter
  • Active Comparator: Aviva Nano blood glucose meter
    Participants used the Accu-Chek® Aviva Nano blood glucose meter and manual bolus calculation to determine the dose of insulin for each injection in their 24 week multiple daily injection therapy.
    Intervention: Device: Aviva Nano blood glucose meter
Publications * Cavan DA, Ziegler R, Cranston I, Barnard K, Ryder J, Vogel C, Parkin CG, Koehler W, Vesper I, Petersen B, Wagner RS. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS): does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy? [NCT01460446]. BMC Fam Pract. 2012 Oct 13;13:102. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-102.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 7, 2014)
218
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 25, 2011)
285
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE September 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date September 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Must be 18 years of age or older.
  • Diagnosed with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.
  • Recent HbA1c > 7.5% (measured within the last 6 weeks at local laboratory).
  • On multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy for at least 6 months consisting of 1-2 injections per day of long-acting basal insulin (Lantus® or Detemir®) and at least 2 injections per day of regular or rapid-acting analog insulin for meal coverage.
  • Subject adjusts meal insulin doses based on carbohydrate content of meals.
  • Subject with Type 2 diabetes may be on stable metformin therapy (therapy unchanged during 3 months prior to study).
  • Subject has been in Investigator's practice for at least 3 months but may have been seen by another physician in the practice.
  • Subject has completed carbohydrate (CHO) training within the last 2 years.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subject is on a therapy regimen that conflicts with the study:

    • Neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) or pre-mixed insulin;
    • oral anti-diabetic agents, with the exception of metformin;
    • injectable anti-diabetic agents other than long-acting insulin and rapid-acting insulin analogs or regular insulin (eg, fixed dose therapy);
    • use of sliding scale insulin therapy that determines insulin dosages based exclusively on specific blood glucose (bG) results.
  • Subject has participated in another interventional trial within 6 weeks prior to study.
  • Subject has been diagnosed with any clinically significant infectious disease or major organ system disease, such as gastroparesis or renal disease (at Investigator's discretion).
  • Subject has used systemic oral or inhaled steroids for more than 7 days within the last 3 months.
  • Subject is on chemotherapy or radiation therapy (self-reported).
  • Subject is pregnant or lactating or is currently planning a pregnancy.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Germany,   United Kingdom
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01460446
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE RD001333
Has Data Monitoring Committee Not Provided
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Hoffmann-La Roche
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Hoffmann-La Roche
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Director: Iris Vesper Roche Diagnostics
PRS Account Hoffmann-La Roche
Verification Date January 2014

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP