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Study on the Treatment of Vivax Malaria (VHX)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01074905
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 24, 2010
Last Update Posted : August 28, 2013
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Mahidol University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Oxford

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE February 23, 2010
First Posted Date  ICMJE February 24, 2010
Last Update Posted Date August 28, 2013
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2010
Actual Primary Completion Date October 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2010)
The first recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria [ Time Frame: Day 28 ]
The first recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria within 28 days
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2010)
  • Any recurrence of Plasmodium vivax parasitemia [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Any recurrence of Plasmodium vivax parasitemia within the follow up period
  • Time to first recurrence, median time between episodes of vivax infections and total number of episodes [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Time to first recurrence, median time between episodes of vivax infections and total number of episodes in the follow up period
  • Overall number of days of illness and haematocrit below 30% [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Overall number of days of illness and haematocrit below 30% within the follow up period
  • Chloroquine level [ Time Frame: Day 7 ]
    Whole blood chloroquine level at day 7 and any day of recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria
  • Adverse events [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Adverse event profiles of artesunate, chloroquine and primaquine
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Study on the Treatment of Vivax Malaria
Official Title  ICMJE A Randomised Open Label Study Comparing the Efficacy of Chloroquine/Primaquine, Chloroquine and Artesunate in the Treatment of Vivax Malaria Along the Thai-Burmese Border
Brief Summary This is a randomised open label trial with follow up for 1 year. 660 adults and children above 6 months diagnosed with acute Plasmodium vivax will be randomised into 3 groups, either chloroquine, artesunate, or chloroquine/primaquine therapy. Participants will be screened on the day of inclusion then followed weekly for 8 visits and every 4 weeks until week 52. The primary objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of the WHO and Thai Ministry of Public Health recommended radical curative regimen of chloroquine and primaquine with the currently used monotherapy regimens of chloroquine and artesunate along the Thai-Burmese border.
Detailed Description

Considerably less attention has been paid to Plasmodium vivax epidemiology than Plasmodium falciparum. In areas of relatively low unstable transmission, which comprise the majority of P.vivax affected areas, vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of children (Luxemburger et al 1999). Chloroquine has long been the standard treatment for vivax malaria. Primaquine is recommended for radical cure of vivax malaria, but is difficult to administer due to dosing duration and side effects.

This study aims to characterize the epidemiologic history comparing the efficacy of 3 antimalarial regimens (chloroquine, artesunate, and chloroquine/primaquine) for plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Chloroquine is currently the standard of treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Due to the long half-life or chloroquine, the first relapse of vivax malaria may be delayed. In contrast, artesunate has a very short half-life, thus, having no impact on first relapse. It is not known whether chloroquine reduces the overall number of relapses, or only delays the first relapse. There are many important questions about the biology of vivax malaria of relevance to treatment that remain unanswered. For example is the number of relapses per infection (i.e. per successful inoculation) predetermined or adaptive? If it is predetermined then suppression of the first relapse (as with chloroquine, mefloquine or piperaquine) will reduce the total number of relapses and this is a clear benefit. If it is adaptive then these drugs will simply delay the relapses and there is less clear benefit. These various uncertainties illustrate the importance of detailed comparative longitudinal evaluations. In order to characterize the biology of vivax malaria, it will be necessary to compare regimens with and without primaquine. Because of the challenges that face primaquine prescription (side effects, toxicity in G6PD deficient patients and duration of treatment), it is not commonly deployed along the Thai Burma border. In effect, we will be comparing usual practice (non primaquine regimens) with the recommended WHO and Thai MOPH practice (use of primaquine for 14 days). The information we will gather is crucial to the understanding of chloroquine and its effect on the vivax parasite. This will lead to future studies and invariably change the way we treat vivax malaria.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 3
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Vivax Malaria
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Artesunate
    2 mg/kg/day as single daily dose given for 5 days; maximum dose range is 1.6 to 2.4 mg/kg/day or a total of 8 to 12 mg/kg.
  • Drug: Chloroquine
    25 mg base/kg given in divided doses (10,10,5) over 3 days; Absolute range 20-30 mg/kg.
  • Drug: Chloroquine/Primaquine
    Chloroquine 3 days and Primaquine 14 days
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: Artesunate
    2 mg/kg/day as single daily dose given for 5 days; maximum dose range is 1.6 to 2.4 mg/kg/day or a total of 8 to 12 mg/kg.
    Intervention: Drug: Artesunate
  • Active Comparator: Chloroquine
    25 mg base/kg given in divided doses (10,10,5) over 3 days; Absolute range 20-30 mg/kg.
    Intervention: Drug: Chloroquine
  • Experimental: Chloroquine/Primaquine
    Chloroquine 3 days and Primaquine 14 days
    Intervention: Drug: Chloroquine/Primaquine
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 27, 2013)
655
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2010)
660
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE October 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date October 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adults and children > 6 months
  • Weight > 7 kg for children
  • Have not had primaquine since last Pv episode
  • Participant (or parent/guardian if < 18 years old) is willing and able to give written informed consent
  • Microscopic diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax mono-infection
  • Ability (in the investigators opinion) and willingness of patient or parent/guardian to comply with all study requirements

Exclusion Criteria

  • Allergy to artesunate, chloroquine or primaquine
  • Severe malaria
  • Patients with microscopic diagnosis of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum
  • Presence of any condition which in the judgement of the investigator would place the subject at undue risk or interfere with the results of the study
  • Inability to tolerate oral medication
  • Pregnancy
  • Blood transfusion in the last 3 months
  • Antimalarial in last 2 months
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 6 Months and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Thailand
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01074905
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE SMRU0908
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Responsible Party University of Oxford
Original Responsible Party Francois Nosten, Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
Current Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Oxford
Original Study Sponsor  ICMJE Same as current
Collaborators  ICMJE Mahidol University
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Francois Nosten, MD Shoklo Malaria Research Unit
PRS Account University of Oxford
Verification Date August 2013

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP