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Sapropterin as a Treatment for Autistic Disorder

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00850070
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 24, 2009
Results First Posted : February 28, 2014
Last Update Posted : May 1, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
BioMarin Pharmaceutical
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Glen R. Elliott, The Children's Health Council

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE February 20, 2009
First Posted Date  ICMJE February 24, 2009
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE August 31, 2012
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE February 28, 2014
Last Update Posted Date May 1, 2018
Study Start Date  ICMJE March 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date August 2011   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 27, 2014)
  • Clinical Global Impression -- Improvement (CGI-I) Scale [ Time Frame: Weekly for 4 weeks, then monthly, with 16-week end point. Primary outcome assessment used two time points, baseline and 16 weeks. ]
    The CGI-I assessed the number of participants showing much or very much improvement on the CGI-I scale. This is a summary judgment made by a trained clinician based on observed and reported behaviors of the child compared to baseline. It is a 7-point scale from very much worse (1) to very much improved (7). Chi-square analyses were used to assess change in CHI-I scores (by group, post-test). Mixed-effects regression models via SPSS MIXED determined the main effects attributed to differences by group (BH4 and placebo), time (treated as categorical at levels baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks) and the group-by-time interaction. We used random intercept and trend modeling that accounts for each individual's initial level of symptom severity/functioning and rate of change/time
  • Clinical Global Impression -- Severity (CGI-S) Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Primary outcome assessment used 2 time points, baseline and 16 weeks. ]
    The CGI-S assessed the number of participants with improved severity illness on the CGI-S scale. This is a summary judgment made by a trained clinician of symptom severity. It is a 7-point scale that rates the severity of the patient's illness at time of assessment with 1 - normal, not at all, to 7 - extremely ill. Mixed-effects regression models via SPSS MIXED determined the main effects attributed to differences by group (BH4 and placebo), time (treated as categorical at levels baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks) and the group-by-time interaction. We used random intercept and trend modeling that accounts for each individual's initial level of symptom severity/functioning and rate of change/time
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2009)
Clinical Global Improvement (CGI) Scale [ Time Frame: Monthly, with 16-week end point ]
Change History Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00850070 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: April 27, 2018)
  • Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition (PLS-4). Assesses Expressive and Receptive Language Skills in Ages Birth Through 6 Years, 11 Months. [ Time Frame: Primary outcome assessment examined the difference in scores between baseline and week 16. ]
    Measures expressive & receptive language and total scores in ages birth to 6 years 11 months. The scales generate raw, standard, and age-equivalent scores; raw scores for the total scale were selected for use in this study. Total is average of subscales. Minimum raw score = 0, maximum = 130. Higher scores indicate better language abilities. Mixed-effects regression models via SPSS MIXED determined the main effects attributed to differences by group (BH4 and placebo), time (treated as categorical at levels baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks) and the group-by-time interaction. For the outcome effect, the difference between baseline and 16 weeks was determined as an indicator for change.
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II. [ Time Frame: Primary outcome assessment used two time points, baseline and 16 weeks. ]
    the Vineland-2 is a semi-structured interview designed to assess communicatino, daily living, socialization and motor skills. The Vineland-2 is comprised of a total Adaptive Composite scale; we chose to use 10 subscales that specifically address functional domains relevant for a young ASD sample - Receptive Communication, Expressive Communication, Personal Daily Living Skills, Domestic Daily Living Skills, Community Daily Living Skills, Interpersonal Relations, Play Skills, Coping Skills, Gross Motor Skills, Fine Motor Skills. Scales generate raw or sum, V-, and age-equivalent scores; raw scores were selected for use in the study. Raw score ranges from 0 to 108 depending on the scale. Total raw scale range is from 0 to 766. Subscale scores are averaged to create the total adaptive behavior composite. Higher subscale scores indicate more skills. Difference between baseline and week 16 was used as an indicator of change.
  • Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (C-YBOCS) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks ]
    The C-YBOCS is a scale is designed to rate the severity of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in children and adolescents, ages 6 to 17 years. It can be administered by a clinican or trained interviewer in a semi-structured fashion. In general, the ratings depend on the child's and parent's report; however, the final rating is based on the clinical judgement of the interviewer. Rate the characteristics of each item over the prior week up until, and including, the time of the interview. Scores should reflect the average of each item for the entire week, unless otherwise specified.
  • Connor's Preschool ADHD Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks ]
    Conners Early Childhood, addresses child behavior for ages 2 years to 6 years with a variety of scales, including an ADHD subdomain.
  • Adverse Events Scale [ Time Frame: Every 1-2 weeks for 16 weeks ]
    This was not a standardized scale but a set of questions that was asked of each family - some standard and others open ended.
  • Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) - Inappropriate Speech [ Time Frame: Primary outcome assessment used two time points, baseline and 16 weeks. ]
    Subscale assessing echolalia & other odd speech. Higher subscale scores indicate more symptoms. 4 items comprise the subscale, with range of scores from 0-4. Total score range on this subscale is 0 to 16. Scores are averaged to compute overall score. Difference in scores between baseline and week 16 were used as indicator of change.
  • Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) [ Time Frame: Primary outcome assessment used two time points, baseline and 16 weeks. ]
    The SRS is a 65-item scale used to measure the severity of symptoms in ASD as they occur in natural social settings. The SRS is comprised of 1 Total scale and 5 subscales that generate raw scores that can be converted to standard T-scores (with mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10) for gender and rater type; standard scores were selected for use in this study. A total T-score of 76 or higher is considered severe and strongly associated with a clinical diagnosis of autistic disorder. A t-score of 60-75 is in the mild to moderate range and considered typical for children with mild or 'high-functioning' ASD, while a T-score of 59 or less suggests an absence of ASD symptoms. A total raw score of >75 were associated with a sensitivity value of .85 and a specificity value of .75 for ASD. Difference in scores between baseline and week 16 were used as an indicator of change.
  • Parent Global Assessment (PGA) Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks ]
    This is a measure where parents rate their impression of their child's improvement, in a global manner.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2009)
  • Preschool Language Scale (PLS) [ Time Frame: 8 and 16 weeks ]
  • Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II [ Time Frame: 8 and 16 weeks ]
  • Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (C-YBOCS) [ Time Frame: 8 and 16 weeks ]
  • Connor's Preschool ADHD Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 8 and 16 weeks ]
  • Adverse Events Scale [ Time Frame: Every 1-2 weeks for 16 weeks ]
  • Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) - Irritability Subscale [ Time Frame: 8 and 16 weeks ]
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Sapropterin as a Treatment for Autistic Disorder
Official Title  ICMJE Sapropterin as a Treatment for Autistic Disorder: A Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Brief Summary This study is intended to provide a definitive test of the hypothesis that elevating sapropterin (tetrahydrobiopterin, a cofactor for several key brain enzymes)concentrations in the CNS will result in measurable improvements in core symptoms of autism in young individuals, under age 6 years. The study will entail a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week intervention.
Detailed Description Over the past 20 years, several studies have suggested that sapropterin (tetrahydrobiopterin) might ameliorate core symptoms of autism at least in young (under age 6) subjects. However, those studies had somewhat questionable methodologies, a major one being that the doses of sapropterin used were roughly one tenth that thought to be needed to provide physiologically meaningful increases of sapropterin in the central nervous system (CNS). This study will look at the impact of a sustained exposure to this higher dose in well-diagnosed young children with autism.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Autistic Disorder
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: sapropterin
    Patients will receive sapropterin 20 mg per kilogram per day for 16 weeks
    Other Names:
    • Kuvan
    • tetrahydrobiopterin
  • Drug: Placebo
    Patients will receive a placebo identical in form and dosage to the active drug daily for 16 weeks.
    Other Name: sugar pill
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: sapropterin, 100 mg capsules
    Sapropterin was supplied as a 100 mg tablet and dosage was based on 20 mg/kg/d, rounding to the nearest 100 mg. Most subjects crushed the tablets and administered it in liquid or a food to mask the taste. Subjects took the same dose daily for 16 weeks.
    Intervention: Drug: sapropterin
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo, matching active drug
    The placebo was supplied as a 100 mg tablet, and dosage was based on 20 mg/kg/d, rounding to the nearest 100 mg. Most subjects crushed the tablets and administered it in liquid or a food to mask the taste. Subjects took the same dose daily for 16 weeks.
    Intervention: Drug: Placebo
Publications * Klaiman C, Huffman L, Masaki L, Elliott GR. Tetrahydrobiopterin as a treatment for autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun;23(5):320-8. doi: 10.1089/cap.2012.0127.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 27, 2014)
46
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 23, 2009)
72
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE October 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date August 2011   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Parents sign informed consent
  • Child meets criteria for autistic disorder (based on score on the Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), given by a certified administrator, research reliable)
  • Child has a Developmental Quotient (DQ) ≥ 50 (Vineland Adaptive Scales, Interview Edition)
  • Parents agree to delay initiation of other treatments during double-blind trial

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Child has had seizures in past 6 months or a change in seizure medications in past 4 weeks.
  • Child has > 18 points on subscale of (Autism Behavior Checklist) ABC-I
  • Child is taking any psychoactive medication other than supplements, anticonvulsants, or soporifics (melatonin, diphenhydramine)
  • Child has had any change in standing medications in the past 4 weeks.
  • Child has known genetic disorders
  • Child has known severe neurological disorders, including cerebral palsy
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 3 Years to 6 Years   (Child)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00850070
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE CHC-0901
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Glen R. Elliott, The Children's Health Council
Study Sponsor  ICMJE The Children's Health Council
Collaborators  ICMJE BioMarin Pharmaceutical
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Glen R Elliott, Ph.D., M.D. The Children's Health Council
PRS Account The Children's Health Council
Verification Date April 2018

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP