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Health Effects of SLT, Cigarette Smoking, and New Tobacco Products (ANTS3)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00469079
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 4, 2007
Results First Posted : April 14, 2014
Last Update Posted : November 1, 2019
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Minnesota

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE May 3, 2007
First Posted Date  ICMJE May 4, 2007
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 29, 2013
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE April 14, 2014
Last Update Posted Date November 1, 2019
Study Start Date  ICMJE January 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date February 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 4, 2014)
  • Toxicant Exposure by Products [ Time Frame: Baseline, 4 weeks ]
    Levels of carcinogen biomarkers (NNAL) reported as difference between baseline and week 4 scores.
  • Product Use at Week 4 of Intervention [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    Self-reported daily use of the assigned study product. Range of scores is from 0 to about 20. Higher scores do not represent either a better or a worse outcome. Higher number of product used per day may indicate higher abuse liability of the product but may lead to a greater suppression in usual brand cigarette smoking. Lower number of product use per day may indicate lower abuse liability but may lead to lower suppression of usual brand smoking.
  • Abstinence From Tobacco at End of Treatment, 1 Week and 11 Weeks Post-intervention. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    This study was not powered to detect differences in smoking cessation rates between groups; however, smoking status was collected at each visit to obtain preliminary data. Point prevalence (no smoking during the previous 7 days) cigarette abstinence rates were calculated at the end of treatment and at each of the 2 follow-up visits (week 1 and 11 post-intervention). Continuous abstinence rates were calculated for the 4 week period between the week 1 and week 4 visits. Abstinence at all visits was assessed by self-report (i.e., no cigarettes smoked) and confirmed by an exhaled CO of less than 8 ppm. At the follow-up visits, abstinence was also confirmed by both exhaled CO concentrations and urinary cotinine concentration (<35 ng/mL).
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 3, 2007)
  • Toxicant Exposure by Products [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
  • Abstinence from cigarettes [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
  • Abstinence from tobacco [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 4, 2014)
Product Effect on Craving and Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms at 1 Week. [ Time Frame: Baseline and 1 week ]
Changes in craving and withdrawal symptoms were assessed at the time of discontinuation of usual brand cigarettes (i.e., baseline compared to week 1). Assessments were made using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, which measures abstinence effects from usual brand cigarettes. Total Score: Range of scores is from 0 to 28. All items with the exclusion of craving are summed. Craving Score: Range of score is from 0 to 4. A higher score would indicate more severe withdrawal.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 3, 2007)
  • Nicotine withdrawal symptoms [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
  • Respiratory symptoms [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Health Effects of SLT, Cigarette Smoking, and New Tobacco Products
Official Title  ICMJE Comparing the Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and New Tobacco Products Advertised as Safer Alternatives Part of Tobacco Exposure Reduction
Brief Summary

The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been suggested since it is considered by some to be a less harmful tobacco product (Russell, Jarvis and Feyerabend, 1980; Russell et al, 1981; Rodu, 1994). ST does not have the volatile constituents and carbon monoxide (CO) that are found in cigarette smoke. Since ST is not smoked there would be less risk of cardiovascular and lung disease. In addition the harm associated with second hand smoke would be eliminated. Although the health risks are reduced in ST users, they still exist due to the presence of nitrosamines found in ST. A better approach would be to use nicotine replacement that did not contain carcinogens, however the cost of such NRT could be prohibitive especially in third world countries where the rate of smoking is continuing to rise and the per capita income is much lower than in the United States.

Purpose: The goal of this study is to evaluate the health effects of Camel Snus, the new oral tobacco product produced by RJ Reynolds and Taboka, produced by Phillip Morris. These products are pasteurized rather than fermented and contain less moisture to eliminate spitting. They are marketed as an alternative to cigarette smoking.

Detailed Description

Cigarette smokers (n=125) will be recruited from the local metropolitan area using multiple media outlets. Subjects who are medically and psychologically healthy will be recruited for the study. Cigarette smokers will be informed of the study over the telephone and asked to answer a brief tobacco use history and medical screening questionnaire. If subjects pass the initial screening for the study, they will be asked to attend an orientation meeting at the Tobacco Use Research Center where the study will be explained in more detail, informed consent will be obtained and a full screening evaluation will occur. This evaluation includes the completion of several comprehensive tobacco use and social history forms and a complete physical and psychological screening.

Subjects will be required to attend the clinic once during Week 1 and once during Week 2 of the study in order to obtain baseline data. At the end of Week 2, cigarette smokers will be randomly assigned to either: 1) quit tobacco use and will be offered the choice of using nicotine gum or lozenge, depending on personal preference (n= 25) or they will be assigned to switch to: 2) Taboka (n=50) or 3) Camel Snus (n=50). Subjects sampled different flavors of the products for 1 week and then used the product for the next 4 weeks. During the four weeks, subjects will be asked to attend weekly clinic visits during which time study data will be collected. After the 4 weeks of study product use, subjects will be required to taper off of the tobacco or nicotine product over the next one week and then cease all tobacco use. Follow-up visits will be conducted 1 week and 11 weeks after completion of the study and outcome measures will be taken at that time. Blood and urine samples will be collected and analyzed for tobacco related toxicants during the treatment period.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Nicotine Dependence
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Nicotine gum and lozenge
    Nicotine replacement
    Other Name: Commit, Nicorette
  • Other: Taboka
    smokeless tobacco product
  • Other: Camel Snus
    smokeless tobacco product
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: 1
    Nicotine gum or nicotine lozenge; Dosage: 2 or 4 mg; Frequency: Daily; Duration: 5 weeks of use of which 1 week is tapering.
    Intervention: Drug: Nicotine gum and lozenge
  • Experimental: 2
    Taboka - oral tobacco product Dosage: 0.84 to 1.26 mg free nicotine per g dry weight; Frequency: Daily; Duration: 5 weeks of use of which 1 week is tapering.
    Intervention: Other: Taboka
  • Experimental: 3
    Camel Snus - oral tobacco product Dosage: 6.09 to 9.16 mg dry weight; Frequency: Daily; Duration: 5 weeks of use of which 1 week is tapering.
    Intervention: Other: Camel Snus
Publications * Kotlyar M, Hertsgaard LA, Lindgren BR, Jensen JA, Carmella SG, Stepanov I, Murphy SE, Hecht SS, Hatsukami DK. Effect of oral snus and medicinal nicotine in smokers on toxicant exposure and withdrawal symptoms: a feasibility study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jan;20(1):91-100. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0349. Epub 2010 Nov 10. Erratum in: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 May;20(5):1048.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 4, 2014)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 3, 2007)
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE February 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date February 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects between 18-70 years of age
  • Smoking at least 10 cigarettes/day for at least one year
  • Good physical and mental health as evidenced by a medical history with no unstable medical conditions.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Uncontrolled chronic disease or condition that requires medical attention during the course of the study
  • Contraindications for nicotine replacement products: active ulcers, recent heart attack, heart disease or irregular heart beat, uncontrolled high blood pressure, or medication use that might affect tobacco use
  • Current unstable psychiatric diagnoses or persons who currently are adjusting medication dose. (within the last 3 months)
  • Subjects with current or recent (within 6 months) alcohol or drug abuse problem
  • Other regular tobacco use such as regular cigar or pipe smoking
  • Currently using other nicotine replacement products
  • Chronic use of any drug that could interact with the study drugs.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00469079
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 010M79961
P50DA013333 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party University of Minnesota
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Minnesota
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Dorothy Hatsukami, PHD University of Minnesota
PRS Account University of Minnesota
Verification Date October 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP