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The Effect of Metformin Added to Clomiphene Citrate on Pregnancy Rates in Hyperandrogenic, Chronic Oligoovulatory or Anovulatory Women

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00413179
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 19, 2006
Last Update Posted : December 19, 2006
Information provided by:
59th Medical Wing

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE December 18, 2006
First Posted Date  ICMJE December 19, 2006
Last Update Posted Date December 19, 2006
Study Start Date  ICMJE December 1997
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 18, 2006)
  • Pregnancy Rates
  • Ovulation Rates
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History No Changes Posted
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 18, 2006)
Pregnancy Outcome
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE The Effect of Metformin Added to Clomiphene Citrate on Pregnancy Rates in Hyperandrogenic, Chronic Oligoovulatory or Anovulatory Women
Official Title  ICMJE The Effect of Metformin Added to Clomiphene Citrate on Pregnancy Rates in Hyperandrogenic, Chronic Oligoovulatory or Anovulatory Women: A Randomized Trial
Brief Summary The purpose of our study was to conduct a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial in chronic oligoovulatory or anovulatory , hyperandrogenic, infertility patients comparing the effects of adjuvant metformin plus clomiphene citrate to clomiphene citrate plus placebo on pregnancy rates and ovulation rates. We hypothesized that combining metformin with clomiphene citrate would result in higher ovulation and pregnancy rates in hyperandrogenic women who have chronic oligoovulation or anovulation as the sole etiology for their infertility and who have unknown responsiveness to clomiphene citrate.
Detailed Description

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), defined as chronic oligoovulation or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, are primarily treated with clomiphene citrate as first line therapy if they desire pregnancy. However, women with PCOS have lower than expected pregnancy rates in response to clomiphene citrate. Approximately 20% of women with PCOS are resistant to clomiphene citrate. Subjects with chronic oligoovulation or anovulation and hyperandrogenism will ovulate 80% of the time, but pregnancy occurs in only 40%. The ideal initial treatment regimen for women with PCOS who desire pregnancy has not been determined.

Metformin (Glucophage; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ) is an insulin sensitizer and lowers serum insulin and androgen levels. Numerous case studies, case series, retrospective studies, and non-placebo controlled prospective studies, have suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, spontaneous menses, ovulatory response and pregnancies when metformin was given alone or prior to initiation of ovulation inducing agents in women with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism.

However, there has been conflicting evidence in the literature regarding the effect of metformin alone or in combination with ovulation inducing agents regarding ovulation and pregnancy rates in prospective, randomized trials. Therefore, it remains unknown if the use of metformin plus clomiphene citrate in non-selected, infertility patients with PCOS improves ovulation and pregnancy rates compared to the use of clomiphene citrate alone.

Women with a history of infertility and diagnosed with hyperandrogenic, oligoovulatory or anovulatory cycles as the sole etiology for their infertility were randomized to receive clomiphene citrate 50 mg days 5-9, plus metformin 500 mg three times daily versus clomiphene plus placebo. The dose of clomiphene was increased up to a maximum dose of 250 mg in a step-wise fashion until ovulation was confirmed with an ovulation predictor kit. Once ovulation was confirmed the subjects continued the ovulatory dose of clomiphene for 6 ovulatory cycles or until conception. Metformin or placebo was started on cycle day one and discontinued 8 days after the LH surge and/or by cycle day 21. A positive HCG, ovulation rates and pregnancy outcome were the outcome measures.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 3
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Anovulation
  • Oligoovulation
  • Infertility
  • Hyperandrogenism
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Metformin
  • Drug: Clomiphene citrate
  • Drug: Placebo
Study Arms  ICMJE Not Provided
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 18, 2006)
Original Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Study Completion Date  ICMJE April 2003
Primary Completion Date Not Provided
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Married
  • Hyperandrogenic women 18-40 years old who desired fertility and who demonstrated chronic anovulation or oligoovulation
  • Had patent fallopian tubes and whose partners had normal semen analyses were eligible for enrollment in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Androgen secreting tumours
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Thyroid abnormalities
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Adult onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Diminished ovarian reserve
  • Subjects who used hormonal medications two months prior to the start of the trial.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00413179
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE FWH19970383H
Has Data Monitoring Committee Not Provided
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Not Provided
Study Sponsor  ICMJE 59th Medical Wing
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Randal D Robinson, MD Wilford Hall Medical Center and Brooke Army Medical Center
PRS Account 59th Medical Wing
Verification Date December 2006

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP