Working… Menu

Pilot Study of Raptiva to Treat Sjogren's Syndrome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00344448
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Increased risk of PML associated with raptiva in other studies)
First Posted : June 26, 2006
Results First Posted : December 21, 2015
Last Update Posted : December 21, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gabor Illei, M.D., National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE June 23, 2006
First Posted Date  ICMJE June 26, 2006
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE February 14, 2011
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE December 21, 2015
Last Update Posted Date December 21, 2015
Study Start Date  ICMJE June 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date January 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 17, 2015)
Response Rate at the End of the First (Blinded, Placebo Controlled) Phase at 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 3 months ]
Patient will be considered a responder if (s)he demonstrates improvement in 2 / 3 disease activity measures without worsening of the third one.
  1. Salivary flow: 0.45 ml / 15 min improvement in unstimulated whole salivary flow from baseline value obtained at the study entry.
  2. Salivary gland biopsy: at least 2 points improvement in the focus score on MSG biopsy
  3. Tear flow:
at least 30% improvement in ophthalmic Oxford grading scheme or normalization of the scale as defined by score of 0 or 2mm improvement in Schirmer test as compared with the baseline in either eye.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Change History Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00344448 on Archive Site
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Pilot Study of Raptiva to Treat Sjogren's Syndrome
Official Title  ICMJE A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Proof of Concept, Study of Raptiva, a Humanized Anti-CD-11a Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Sjogren's Syndrome
Brief Summary

This study will examine the effect of the drug Raptiva (efalizumab) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting the glands producing saliva & tears. The cause of SS is not known, but inflammation plays an important role. Raptiva is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease. Patients 18 years of age & older with SS may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with a history & physical examination, chest x-ray, and oral & eye examinations.

Participants are randomly assigned to receive either Raptiva or placebo (an inactive substance that looks like Raptiva) for the first 3 months of the study. For the next 3 months, all participants receive Raptiva. Both Raptiva & placebo are injected under the skin once a week. Evaluation during treatment & for 2 months after treatment as follows:

Full comprehensive evaluations (beginning of the study, at weeks 13 & 25 and 2 months after treatment ends):

  • Physical examination & blood draw.
  • Saliva collection done in two ways: 1) suctions cups connected to collection tubes are placed over the salivary gland ducts in the mouth and under the tongue; and 2) a sour-tasting liquid is applied to the top & sides of the tongue at 30-second intervals to stimulate saliva production.
  • Eye exam for tear gland function.
  • Questionnaires about mouth & eye dryness, energy level and overall well-being.
  • Lip biopsy (screening & week 13 visits only). A few minor salivary glands are removed for examination under a microscope. The lower lip is numbed, a small cut is made on the inside of the lip, and several glands are removed. The cut is closed with a few stitches that are removed after 5 to 7 days.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the parotid glands (salivary glands near the ear) at weeks 1, 13 and 25. The patient lies on a stretcher that is moved into the scanner (a metal cylinder containing a strong magnetic field). The head is held in place during the scan. The study lasts about 90 minutes.
  • Short evaluations at weeks 3, 5, 9, 15, 17, 21 and 1 month after treatment ends.
  • Medical history & physical examination, blood draw, evaluation for changes in symptoms and side effects, review of current medications at weeks 3, 9, 15 and 21.
  • Laboratory tests, evaluation for changes in symptoms and side effects, review of current medications, saliva collection without the sour liquid and short evaluation of tear production at weeks 5 and 17.
  • Blood tests at week 29
Detailed Description

The LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction is important in migration of lymphocytes to inflammatory sites, T-lymphocyte activation, antigen presentation, and maintaining the integrity of the immunologic synapse. In both murine and human Sjogren's Syndrome, increased expression of LFA-1 was found on activated lymphocytes, and increased expression of ICAM-1 was present on the activated endothelial cells in the diseased salivary and lacrimal glands. In animal models, blockade of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction resulted in reduction of glandular inflammation.

Raptiva (efalizumab) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human CD11a, the alpha-subunit of Leukocyte Function Antigen-1 (LFA-1) and inhibits the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. Raptiva is an FDA-approved medication for treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis.

In this pilot, proof of concept, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, up to 25 patients with Sjogren's syndrome may be enrolled. In the first, double-blind phase of the study, patients will be randomized and treated with weekly subcutaneous (SC) injections of either Raptiva (1mg/kg) or placebo for 12 weeks. In the second open label phase, all patients will be treated with weekly SC injections of Raptiva (1mg/kg) for another 12 weeks and then followed for an additional 8 weeks. Safety will be evaluated using standard clinical and laboratory parameters. To assess the potential effect of Raptiva on Sjogren's syndrome, minor salivary gland biopsy, oral and ocular evaluations, and measurements of surrogate markers of inflammation will be compared between the Raptiva and placebo treated groups before and after the treatment. Patients who either do not tolerate the drug or have worsening in their disease activity will be withdrawn from the protocol.

If Raptiva is well tolerated in this study and the treatment is associated with improvement in clinical parameters of Sjogren's Syndrome, further large studies of efficacy are planned.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Sjogren's Syndrome
Intervention  ICMJE Drug: Raptiva
During the first phase of the study, subjects are randomized in a double blind fashion to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab (Raptiva) or placebo (weeks 0-12). The second 12 weeks long phase is open label with all subjects receiving weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab.
Other Names:
  • efalizumab
  • anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Raptiva
    At the beginning of the first (week 1) and second (week 13) phases, all patients will receive reduced dose of the study medication determined at 0.7 mg/kg/week. During all the subsequent administrations, all patients will receive full dose of the study medication determined at 1 mg/kg/week.
    Intervention: Drug: Raptiva
  • Placebo Comparator: placebo
    Weekly subcutaneous injection of a placebo (formulated to match the commercial vial of Raptiva in appearance and content except for the active ingredient) for the first 12 weeks of the study.
    Intervention: Drug: Raptiva
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Terminated
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 25, 2009)
Original Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: June 23, 2006)
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE January 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date January 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Up to 25 patients may be enrolled in this study to obtain at least 20 patients to complete the study and to allow for an estimated up to 20% early attrition rate. Eligible patients will have primary SS diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus Group Sjogren's Syndrome Classification Criteria. Subjects will be chosen based on their potential capacity to reverse the inflammatory process and at least partially recover the exocrine function in the salivary and lacrimal glands, as indicated in the inclusion criteria by requiring a minimal level of salivary flow as a marker of functional gland tissue. Pre-screening, which would include ophthalmologic evaluation, standard laboratory tests, and minor salivary gland biopsy, will be performed under the natural history protocol, and eligible patients will be offered to sign the informed consent for this protocol.

Age at entry at least 18 years

Must give written informed consent prior to entry in the protocol.

Must fulfill at least 4 of the 6 following criteria for Primary SS as defined by the American-European Consensus Group Sjogren's Syndrome Classification Criteria, including either item IV or VI, or fulfill 3 of the 4 objective criteria (III, IV, V, VI) [53] :

Ocular symptoms (at least one):

Dry eyes greater than 3 months

Foreign body sensation in the eyes

Use of artificial tears greater than 3x/day

Oral symptoms (at least one):

Dry mouth greater than 3 months

Swollen salivary glands

Need liquids to swallow dry foods

Ocular signs (at least one):

Schirmer test (without anesthesia) less than or equal to 5 mm/5 min

Positive vital dye staining (van Bijsterveld greater than or equal to 4)

Histopathology: Minor salivary gland biopsy showing focal lymphocyte sialoadenitis (focus score greater than or equal to 1 per 4 mm(2))

Oral signs (at least one):

Unstimulated whole salivary flow (less than or equal to 1.5 ml in 15 min)

Abnormal parotid sialography

Abnormal salivary scintigraphy

Autoantibodies (at least one):

Anti-SSA or Anti-SSB

One or more of the following:

Serum ANA level greater than or equal to 1EU

Serum Anti-SSA level greater than or equal to 20EU

Serum Anti-SSB level greater than or equal to 20EU

Serum RF level greater than or equal to 20 IU/ml

One or more of the following:

ESR greater than 25 mm/hr for men; ESR greater than 42 mm/hr for women

Serum IgG level greater than or equal to 1750 mg/dl

Serum CRP level greater than or equal to 0.8 mg/dl

Stimulated salivary flow of at least 0.1 ml/min.

Minor salivary gland biopsy with a focus score of greater than or equal to 4 within at most 12 months prior to the study enrollment.

Score of 3 or more on Oxford scale in at least one eye at the study entry.

Negative age- and gender- appropriate malignancy screening for breast, cervical, colorectal cancer for women; and prostate and colorectal cancer for men. Specifically:

  • All women: pelvic exam with Papanicolaou smear within one year of study entry.
  • Women age 40 and older: mammogram within 1 year of study entry,
  • Both genders age 50 and older; stool screening for occult blood within one year, or flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within five years
  • Men age 50 and older: rectal examination or prostate specific antigen testing


Past head and neck irradiation.

Hepatitis B, C, HIV, or HTLV infection.

History of lymphoma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS).


Graft-versus-host disease.

Women of childbearing potential are required to have a negative pregnancy test at screening.

Women of childbearing potential and fertile men who are not practicing or who are unwilling to practice birth control during and for a period of three months after the completion of the study.

Any therapy with human or murine antibodies or any experimental therapy within 3 months.

Therapy with cyclophosphamide, pulse methylprednisolone or IVIg, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, oral cyclosporine or methotrexate within 4 weeks of first study treatment.

History of rituximab therapy.

Prednisone dose greater than or equal to 10 mg/day.

Allergy to murine or human antibodies.

History of anaphylaxis.

Serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dl.

History of any malignancy.

Active infection that requires the use of intravenous antibiotics and does not resolve within 1 week of Day 1.

Any active viral infection that does not resolve within 10 days prior to Day 1.

WBC less than 2000/microL or ANC less than 1500/microL or Hgb less than 9.0 g/dL or platelets less than 150,000/microL or absolute lymphocyte count less than or equal to 500/microL.

ALT and/or AST greater than 1.5x upper limit of normal (ULN) or alkaline phosphatase greater than 1.5x ULN.

Significant concurrent medical condition that, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator, could affect the patient's ability to tolerate or complete the study.

Live vaccines within 12 weeks of first treatment.

Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00344448
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 060181
06-D-0181 ( Other Identifier: The National Institutes of Health )
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Gabor Illei, M.D., National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Study Sponsor  ICMJE National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Gabor G Illei, MD, PhD, MHS National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
PRS Account National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Verification Date November 2015

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP