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Use of Etanercept in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Lichen Planus

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00285779
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Slow recruitment)
First Posted : February 2, 2006
Results First Posted : March 3, 2015
Last Update Posted : March 21, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Wright State University
Tufts Medical Center
University of Louisville
Wake Forest University Health Sciences
University of Michigan
Emory University
University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Oregon Health and Science University
The Cleveland Clinic
Fivenson, David, M.D.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
David Fiorentino, Stanford University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE January 31, 2006
First Posted Date  ICMJE February 2, 2006
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE January 28, 2015
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE March 3, 2015
Last Update Posted Date March 21, 2018
Study Start Date  ICMJE August 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date November 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
The Percentage of Patients Achieving a Response in Mucosal Disease (or Cutaneous Disease if no Mucosal Disease) at 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Physician global assessment of disease scores: 0=clear; 1=minimal disease; 2=mild disease; 3=moderate disease; 4=severe disease. Subjects had a level >=3 at baseline. To be considered a responder, the subject must achieve a level of 0 or 1, or, at least a 2 point improvement in the scale.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 31, 2006)
- The percentage of patients achieving a response in mucosal disease (or cutaneous disease if no mucosal disease) at 12 weeks.
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
  • Count of Patients Achieving a Response in Cutaneous or Mucosal Disease at 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 24 ]
    Physician global assessment of disease scores: 0=clear; 1=minimal disease; 2=mild disease; 3=moderate disease; 4=severe disease. Subjects had a level >=3 at baseline. To be considered a responder, the subject must achieve a level of 0 or 1, or, at least a 2 point improvement in the scale.
  • The Physician Assessment of Surface Area of Disease (PSAD) for Oral Disease at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    The percentage of surface area involved with disease is reported as assessed by the physician using a Likert scale. Assessment scores range from 0-5, with lower scores corresponding lower percentage of surface area with disease. 0=clear, 1=<2%, 2=2-9%, 3=10-29%, 4=30-50%, 5=>50%.
  • The Physician Assessment of Surface Area of Disease (PSAD) for Genital Disease at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    The percentage of surface area involved with disease is reported as assessed by the physician using a Likert scale. Assessment scores range from 0-5, with lower scores corresponding lower percentage of surface area with disease. 0=clear, 1=<2%, 2=2-9%, 3=10-29%, 4=30-50%, 5=>50%.
  • The Physician Assessment of Surface Area of Disease (PSAD) for Skin Disease at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    The percentage of surface area involved with disease is reported as assessed by the physician using a Likert scale. Assessment scores range from 0-5, with lower scores corresponding lower percentage of surface area with disease. 0=clear, 1=<2%, 2=2-9%, 3=10-29%, 4=30-50%, 5=>50%.
  • Cutaneous Target Lesion Scores - Erythema, at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Week 12; Week 24 ]
    This is an investigator-based assessment of a single preselected target skin lesion. Assessment scores range from 0-3 on a Likert scale, with higher scores meaning worse erythema. 0=clear, 1=mild/pink, 2=moderately red, 3=severely red/violaceous.
  • Cutaneous Target Lesion Scores - Elevation, at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Week 12; Week 24 ]
    This is an investigator-based assessment of a single preselected target skin lesion. Assessment scores range from 0-3 on a Likert scale, with higher scores meaning worse elevation. 0=flat, 1=barely palpable (<0.5 mm), 2=moderate (0.5 mm-1 mm), 3=severe (>1 mm).
  • Cutaneous Target Lesion Scores - Scale, at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Week 12; Week 24 ]
    This is an investigator-based assessment of a single preselected target skin lesion. Assessment scores range from 0-3 on a Likert scale, with higher scores meaning worse scaling. 0=none, 1=fine/dusty scale, 2=moderate scale, 3=thick/tenacious scale.
  • Cutaneous Target Lesion Scores - Total, at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Week 12; Week 24 ]
    This score sums all of the 3 elements of the target lesion score (erythema, elevation, scale) described in Outcome Measures 6-8. Assessment scores range from 0-9 on a Likert scale, with higher numbers meaning more severe disease in the target skin lesion.
  • Patient Assessment of Pain on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    Participants were asked to indicate their pain level by marking it on a 10 cm linear VAS scale. The number of centimeters from the left end of the line to the mark was measured in cm. Total range was 0-10. Lower scores correspond to less pain, higher scores correspond to more pain.
  • Patient Assessment of Pruritus (Itching) on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    Participants were asked to indicate their itching level by marking it on a 10 cm linear VAS scale. The number of centimeters from the left end of the line to the mark was measured in cm. Total range was 0-10. Lower scores correspond to less itching, higher scores correspond to more itching.
  • Patient Assessment of Overall Disease Severity (Patient Global Assessment) at 12 and 24 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    Participants were asked to indicate their rate their overall assessment of disease severity compared to where it was at their baseline visit. The scale ranges from 0-5, with lower scores correspond to more disease improvement. 0=clear/no disease, 1=much improved (>75% improved), 2=improved (25-75%), 3=minimally improved (<25%), 4=no change, 5=worsened disease.
  • The Count of Subjects Experiencing Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) by Week 12 and Week 24 [ Time Frame: Baseline; Week 12; Week 24 ]
    A serious adverse event was defined as any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose: results in death, is life-threatening, requires inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, results in persistent or significant disability/incapacity, or is a congenital anomaly/birth defect.
  • The Count of Placebo Patients Who do Not Have a Complete Response (Defined as a Physician Global Assessment of "Clear") at 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    A complete response is defined as a score of 0 (representing "no disease") on the Physician Global Assessment. Physician global assessment of disease scores: 0=clear; 1=minimal disease; 2=mild disease; 3=moderate disease; 4=severe disease. This endpoint is the number of patients on placebo that had any score other than 0 on this measure.
  • The Percentage of Placebo and Study-drug Patients Able to Discontinue Use of Topical Corticosteroids Through Week 24 [ Time Frame: 24 weeks ]
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 31, 2006)
  • - The percentage of patients achieving a response in cutaneous or mucosal disease at 24 weeks.
  • - The physician assessment of surface area of disease, PSAD, (mucosal erosions and cutaneous disease) at 12 and 24 weeks.
  • - The individual and total cutaneous target lesion scores at 12 and 24 weeks.
  • - Patient assessment of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 12 and 24 weeks.
  • - Patient assessment of pruritus/itching on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 12 and 24 weeks.
  • - Patient assessment of overall disease severity (Patient Global Assessment) at 12 and 24 weeks.
  • - The number and percentage of subjects experiencing serious adverse events (SAE) on etanercept and placebo.
  • - The percentage of placebo patients who do not have a complete response (defined as a physician global assessment of "clear") at 12 weeks.
  • - The percentage of placebo and study-drug patients able to discontinue use of topical corticosteroids through week 24.
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Use of Etanercept in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Lichen Planus
Official Title  ICMJE A Double-Blind, Randomized, Multicenter Pilot Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Etanercept 50mg SC Twice Weekly in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Lichen Planus
Brief Summary The purpose is to assess the response of subjects to etanercept (as compared to placebo) in treating the physical signs of mucosal and cutaneous lichen planus. The investigators also wish to assess the effect of etanercept on disease-related itching, pain, and serious adverse events in patients with lichen planus.
Detailed Description

Lichen planus affects up to 1% of the worldwide population. Recent estimates suggest approximately 0.44% of the US population suffers from this disease. Oral or genital involvement occurs in 60-70% of patients, and it may be the sole manifestation of disease in 20-30% of patients.

Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disorder that can involve the skin, oral or genital mucosa, conjunctiva, and nails. On the skin, the disease presents as multiple papules, which can be localized or generalized, that are often extremely itchy. Mucosal disease can consist of either asymptomatic plaques or extremely painful erosive lesions. The disease course is unpredictable and typically lasts 1-2 years but can follow a chronic, relapsing course. Erosive mucosal disease is important to aggressively treat for many reasons: First, the associated pain can be debilitating for the patient. Patients with severe oral lichen planus can become malnourished due to pain associated with eating. Vulvar disease can cause dyspareunia, burning pain, and discharge; second, the disease tends to be chronic, with little chance for self-resolution; third, erosive disease is associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected areas. These cancers occur in up to 1% of patients over a 3-year period, and they can be aggressive and even-life threatening for the patient if not recognized and treated early.

Several lines of evidence suggest that TNF-alpha plays a role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus. It has been shown that there are increased levels of TNF-alpha in the serum of these patients. In addition, skin and mucosal biopsies show increased TNF-alpha produced by the infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the basal keratinocytes. It has been suggested that the expression of TNF-alpha receptor on the basal keratinocytes may contribute to apoptosis. Also, TNFR1 (a TNF-alpha receptor) is expressed by the infiltrating mononuclear cells as well as the keratinocytes. Increased levels of soluble TNF receptors are also found in the serum of patients with lichen planus. A recent report also has shown that polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene are associated with both oral and cutaneous lichen planus. Finally, thalidomide, which partly functions as a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha transcription, has been shown to be effective (in small case series and reports) in selected patients for the treatment of oral and genital lichen planus. However, thalidomide is a potent teratogen and cannot be used in women of childbearing potential. In addition, thalidomide usage not uncommonly results in neurotoxicity, which can be permanent, and thus limits use of this drug. Despite the evidence for a role of TNF-alpha in LP there are no reports of any TNF inhibitors being used for this disease.

This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to observe the safety and efficacy of etanercept in patients with lichen planus.

This study will consist of 3 periods: first, a double-blind period (weeks 0-12) in which subjects will be randomized to etanercept 50 mg twice weekly or placebo; second, an open-label period (weeks 12-24) in which subjects who were randomized to placebo treatment, who have not achieved a complete remission, will be rolled over to use etanercept at 50 mg twice weekly. Subjects who previously received etanercept during weeks 0-12, who have not achieved a complete remission, will be continued on etanercept at a lower dosage of 25 mg twice weekly for weeks 12-24; third, an 8 week follow-up period for all subjects.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Lichen Planus
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Etanercept
    etanercept 50 mg twice weekly for 12 weeks
    Other Name: Enbrel
  • Drug: Placebo
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo injection
    patients receive normal saline injection twice weekly for weeks 1-12
    Intervention: Drug: Placebo
  • Experimental: Etanercept
    patients receive etanercept injection twice weekly for weeks 1-12.
    Intervention: Drug: Etanercept
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Terminated
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 16, 2015)
27
Original Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 31, 2006)
64
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE November 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date November 2009   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • At least 18 years old.
  • Must carry a diagnosis of lichen planus as determined by biopsy
  • Patients must have a score of 3 or greater on the physician global assessment (PGA).
  • Patient must be considered appropriate for systemic therapy based upon fulfilling one of the following criteria:

    1. inability to maintain weight due to pain with eating, chewing, or swallowing;
    2. dyspareunia or dysuria due to genital lesions;
    3. itch/pain of sufficient severity that activities of daily living are significantly affected
  • Must be off systemic lichen planus treatment for 4 weeks prior to starting etanercept
  • If using topical corticosteroid to the affected areas, the dose and frequency must be unchanged for 2 weeks prior to beginning the study agent and during the course of the study.
  • Must be off topical cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or pimecrolimus for 2 weeks prior to starting the study drug and for the entire duration of the study.
  • Must be able and willing to give written informed consent and comply with the requirements of the study protocol and must authorize release and use of protected health information.
  • Women of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test at the time of entry into the study and must be practicing successful contraception for at least 3 months prior to the study.
  • Subject or designee must have the ability to self-inject investigational product.
  • Screening laboratory results are within the following parameters:

    • Hemoglobin > 10 g/dL
    • White blood cells > 3.5 x 10^9/L
    • Neutrophils > 1.5 x 10^9/L
    • Platelets > 100 x 10^9/L
    • Lymphocytes > 0.5 x 10^9/L
    • Serum creatinine < 1.5 mg/dL
    • Hepatitis C serology - nonreactive
    • AST and ALT < 2X upper limit of normal (ULN)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subject is currently enrolled in another investigational device or drug trial(s), or subject has received investigational agent(s) within 90 days of baseline visit.
  • Known HIV-positive status, any other immuno-suppressive disease, or inability to practice safe sex during the length of the study
  • Subject has been diagnosed with a malignancy within the past 5 years
  • Subject has signs or symptoms of a lymphoproliferative disease.
  • Other skin or mucosal disease that might interfere with lichen planus assessments.
  • Lichen planus variants including hypertrophic, atrophic, follicular (including lichen planopilaris), and bullous cutaneous forms.
  • Patients with lichen sclerosis et atrophicus (LS&A)
  • Clinical history and lesion distribution suspicious for a lichenoid drug eruption
  • Severe co-morbidities
  • History of tuberculosis (TB) or positive PPD at screening. Known history of active hepatitis B or C, or lupus, SLE, history of multiple sclerosis or prior episode of central nervous system demyelination, transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, epilepsy, psychiatric condition, or other chronic serious medical illnesses.
  • Subject has a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) of any severity
  • Use of a live vaccine 90 days prior to, or during this study.
  • Previous exposure and/or known sensitivity to etanercept
  • Concurrent use, or failure of, any TNF-inhibitor
  • Previous exposure to alefacept or efalizumab within 6 weeks of administration of study drug
  • Concurrent sulfasalazine therapy
  • Prior or concurrent cyclophosphamide therapy
  • Active severe infections, or prior infection requiring hospitalization or oral/intravenous antibiotics within 4 weeks before screening visit, or between the screening and baseline visits.
  • Active inflammatory bowel disease or peptic ulcer disease
  • Drug or alcohol abuse within 12 months of screening visit.
  • History of non-compliance with other therapies
  • Pregnant or lactating
  • Documented presence of any of the following:

    • Proteinuria > 1+ by dipstick screening
    • 24 Hour protein excretion > 0.5 g
    • Symptomatic liver disease with serum albumin < 3 G/DL
    • PT or PTT > ULN, or
    • Chronic liver disease
  • Documented forced vital capacity < 50% of predicted
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT00285779
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 20041132
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party David Fiorentino, Stanford University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Stanford University
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • Wright State University
  • Tufts Medical Center
  • University of Louisville
  • Wake Forest University Health Sciences
  • University of Michigan
  • Emory University
  • University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • Oregon Health and Science University
  • The Cleveland Clinic
  • Fivenson, David, M.D.
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: David F Fiorentino, MD, PhD Stanford University
Study Director: David F Fiorentino, MD, PhD Stanford University
PRS Account Stanford University
Verification Date March 2018

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP