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Ultrasound Assisted Wound Debridement (UAW) Versus Standard Wound Treatment in Complicated Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04633642
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 18, 2020
Last Update Posted : November 18, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Francisco Javier Álvaro Afonso
David Sevillano Fernández
Yolanda García Álvarez
Irene Sanz Corbalan
Esther García Morales
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jose Luis Lazaro Martinez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Brief Summary:
The investigators aimed to elucidate the effects of UAW debridement on cellular proliferation and dermal repair in complicated diabetic foot ulcers as compared to diabetic foot ulcers receiving surgical/sharp wound debridement. A randomized controlled trial was performed involving outpatients with complicated diabetic foot ulcers that either received surgical debridement or UAW debridement every week during a six-week treatment period.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Procedure: Ultrasound group Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

2. Methods

2.1. Trial design

A randomized and controlled parallel clinical trial was performed involving outpatients with complicated DFU that were admitted to specialized diabetic foot unit between November 2017 to December 2019. The study protocol received full approval from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain (C.P. - C.I. 16/484-P). Each patient provided written informed consent before inclusion.

2.1. Intervention

Participants were randomized and assigned to receive either surgical debridement or UAW debridement every week during a six-week treatment period.

Soft tissue punch biopsies (3mm) were taken after wound debridement sessions at week zero and week six.

2.2. Follow-up Patients were followed-up for 6 months after inclusion. During the follow-up period, the investigators recorded ulcer healing. Ulcer healing was defined as complete epithelialization without any sustained drainage up to 24 weeks after the end of the study follow-up.

2.3. Sample size The sample size was calculated using the Granmo v.12 program (Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain) (https://www.imim.cat/ofertadeserveis/software-public/granmo/ ). Therefore, we analyzed 51 patients (24 in surgical group and 27 en UAW group) with an alpha of 0.05 and a statistical power of 0.80.

2.4. Randomization A computer-generated random number table was used to carry out the randomization of the patients into the two groups by an investigator who was blinded to the identity of the participants.

2.5. Blinding None of the participants, care providers, and outcome adjudicators was blinded to the interventions after assignment.

2.6. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for IOs version 21.0 (SPSS, Inc. Chicago, IL, USA). The assumption of normality of all continuous variables was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical differences between groups were calculated using the Chi-Square test and, where appropriate, Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed for abnormally distributed quantitative parameters, and Student's t-test was performed for quantitative variables that were distributed normally. The criteria of p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant with a confidence interval of 95%.

This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (2013 revision) and followed all local laws and regulations in clinical research investigations in patients.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 51 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: A randomized and controlled parallel clinical trial
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Cellular Proliferation, Dermal Repair, and Microbiological Effectiveness of Ultrasound Assisted Wound Debridement (UAW) Versus Standard Wound Treatment in Complicated Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU): A Randomized Controlled Trial
Actual Study Start Date : November 1, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 1, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : December 31, 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Ultrasound Group (UAW group)
UAW debridement was performed using an UAW SONOCA 185 device (Söring GmbH, Germany). The UAW device generates an ultrasound low frequency of 25kHz and is equipped with three UAW instruments with different sonotrode shapes. The choice of sonotrode depends on wound depth, which ranges from superficial to deep. The UAW instrument piezoelectrically transforms the electrical energy delivered from the UAW device into mechanical oscillations in the sonotrode tip. For most wounds in the UAW group, a two-minute treatment with 40% intensity was performed by holding the sonotrode in contact mode, holding it perpendicular to the wound bed and moving it across in an up-and-down pattern.
Procedure: Ultrasound group
For most wounds in the UAW group, a two-minute treatment with 40% intensity was performed by holding the sonotrode in contact mode, holding it perpendicular to the wound bed and moving it across in an up-and-down pattern. For wounds measuring >15cm2, the debridement procedure was increased to three minutes. In addition to UAW debridement, a scalpel was used for careful tissue removal, but only if periwound skin exhibited calluses and maceration.

Active Comparator: Surgical group

All debridement procedures were performed by the same surgeon (J.L.M.), who is specialist in diabetic foot surgery with more than 20 years of experience.

Surgical debridement involved removal of all necrotic and devitalized tissue that was incompatible with healing, as well as surrounding callus.

Procedure: Ultrasound group
For most wounds in the UAW group, a two-minute treatment with 40% intensity was performed by holding the sonotrode in contact mode, holding it perpendicular to the wound bed and moving it across in an up-and-down pattern. For wounds measuring >15cm2, the debridement procedure was increased to three minutes. In addition to UAW debridement, a scalpel was used for careful tissue removal, but only if periwound skin exhibited calluses and maceration.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change from Baseline Neo-angiogenesis (Microvessel density) at 6 weeks [ Time Frame: At week zero and week 6 ]
    Sections of tissue were immunohistochemically-stained with the CD31 marker. Light microscopy was used to count the number of microvessels/endothelial cells in a standardized grid, with the results expressed as microvessel density (Leica DMD 800 morphometric system). Microvessel density was scored according to the following scale: 0 (absent), 1 (low, at least one microvessel), 2 (moderate) and 3 (more than two microvessels).

  2. Change from Baseline Collagen formation (Collagen content ) at 6 weeks [ Time Frame: At week zero and week 6 ]
    Massons's trichome staining was used to differentiate collagen content from other components, such as muscle fibrin and erythrocytes, in tissue samples. Collagen content was scored according to the following scale: 0 (absent), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate) and 3 (severe)

  3. Change from Baseline Myofibroblasts formation (Myofibroblasts content) at 6 weeks [ Time Frame: At week zero and week 6 ]
    Actin staining was used to evaluate the presence of myofibroblasts involved in wound healing. These cells increase in number during wound healing. The number of stained cells was semi-quantitatively analyzed using a 0 - 3 scaling score (0= no myofibroblasts, 1= myofibroblasts in low quantity, 2= myofibroblasts in moderate quantity, 3= myofibroblasts in high quantity)


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Comparison of quantitative microbiological analysis (bacterial counts expressed colony-forming units per gram of tissue) (CFU/g) [ Time Frame: At week zero and week 6 ]
    Tissue samples were weighed and mechanically homogenised in 0.5ml volumes of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, Sigma Aldrich, St Louis, MO). Homogenates were diluted and plated onto Columbia agar (BD, Sparks, MD), Columbia agar supplemented with colistin and nalidixic acid (BD), MacConkey agar (BD), and Sabouraud dextrose agar (BD) using a spiral plater workstation (Don Whitley Scientific, Shipley, UK).The limit of detection was 10 colony-forming units (CFU). Results were expressed as CFU per gram of tissue (CFU/g). Isolated microorganisms were identified by standard criteria and the BBL Crystal identification system (BD). Susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates for oxacillin was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, using a 30g cefoxitin disc and Mueller-Hinton agar .

  2. Wound conditions [ Time Frame: Two years ]
    Wound bed tissue was evaluated for presence, quality, and consistency of granulation tissue using a validated wound scoring system, with scores ranging between a minimum of zero points and maximum of seven points.

  3. Wound size [ Time Frame: Two years ]
    A planimetric measurements of wound size were conducted using Visitrak (Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK), with the area of the lesion determined with an approximation of ±5mm2



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • • Male and female patients ≥18 years old

    • Type 1 or type 2 diabetes with levels of HbA1c≤85.8 mmol/mol (10%) within 30 days of the beginning of the study
    • Wound stages IB, IIB, ID, and IID according to the University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification [11]
    • Wound duration of 1-24 months
    • Wound size between 1-30 cm2 after debridement
    • Clinical picture of wounds showing mild or moderate infection, according to the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines [12] and the European Wound Management Association (EWMA) [13]
    • Ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤0.9 and ankle systolic blood pressure (ASBP) ≥70mmHg, or toe systolic blood pressure (TSBP) ≥50mmHg, ABI>0.9, TSBP ≥50mmHg and toe-brachial index (TBI) ≤0.7

Exclusion Criteria:

  • • Chronic renal disease or dialysis

    • Non-treated osteomyelitis
    • Necrotizing soft tissue infections
    • Critical limb ischaemia patients with ABI≤0.5 and ASBP<70mmHg or <50mmHg
    • Life expectancy <6 months due to malignant DFU
    • Pregnancy and lactation
    • Patients diagnosed with hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Patients showing local or systemic conditions that may impair tissue repair

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04633642


Locations
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Spain
Fancisco Javier Álvaro Afonso
Madrid, Spain, 28039
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Francisco Javier Álvaro Afonso
David Sevillano Fernández
Yolanda García Álvarez
Irene Sanz Corbalan
Esther García Morales
Publications:

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Responsible Party: Jose Luis Lazaro Martinez, Prof.Dr, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04633642    
Other Study ID Numbers: C.P. - C.I. 16/484-P
First Posted: November 18, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 18, 2020
Last Verified: November 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Jose Luis Lazaro Martinez, Universidad Complutense de Madrid:
ultrasound assisted wound debridement
surgical debridement
cellular proliferation
microbiology
diabetic foot ulcers
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetic Foot
Foot Ulcer
Ulcer
Pathologic Processes
Diabetic Angiopathies
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Leg Ulcer
Skin Ulcer
Skin Diseases
Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine System Diseases
Diabetic Neuropathies
Foot Diseases