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The Effect of Web Based Reproductive Health Education on Sexual Myths and Risky Behaviors in University Students

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04579432
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : October 8, 2020
Last Update Posted : January 14, 2021
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Güzin Ünlü, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa

Brief Summary:

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the concept of reproductive health as "not only the absence of disease or disability, but a state of complete physical, mental and social welfare in all matters related to the reproductive system, functions and processes". However, it also emphasizes that people have free will in the timing of having a satisfying and safe sexual life and using their reproductive abilities.

Sexual and reproductive health and rights are essential for the health and survival of people, economic development and prosperity. In the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, the third article named "Health and Quality Life" includes the targets covering reproductive health and sexual health. Some of these goals are; universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, creation of national education and information strategies for reproductive health, preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs), access to information about family planning, and reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. People can lead a complete healthy and quality life only when these goals are achieved.

It is observed that the knowledge of men and women about general reproductive health and the organs and functions of the female and male reproductive systems is significantly lacking. In addition to these, it has been reported that they have insufficient knowledge on other issues such as sexual health, STIs and family planning methods. There are studies showing that lack of knowledge brings about reproductive health problems in young individuals. Problems such as exposure to STIs, early pregnancy, and risky sexual behaviors arise due to lack of information. Since all these health problems can cause permanent damage, the individual's future reproductive health is also at risk. However, it is possible to come across studies showing that reproductive health education is a tool to prevent these adverse health conditions. In a study conducted with university students, even if students' basic sexual education knowledge levels were good; It has been reported that there is a positive relationship between receiving sexual education and protective sexual behaviors, knowledge, motivation and skills. At the same time, it has been reported in many studies that believing in sexual myths, which are considered as false beliefs and have no scientific value, is more common in students with high levels of knowledge. While sexual myths cause behavioral changes with believed mistakes, sexual dysfunctions, decrease in sexual satisfaction and negative attitude towards contraceptive methods can also be brought about. Considering that people who know more about sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS have a low rate of believing in myths, an important reproductive health problem such as STI should be considered to be related to myths.

In this context, training on reproductive health and sexual health is important. Preparation and implementation of trainings on reproductive and sexual health by health professionals; It is important as it is known that young people have access to conflicting or incorrect information from various sources. Therefore, health professionals should be involved in these training processes. While planning the trainings, many platforms can be used, and nowadays, web-based trainings increase their importance with the introduction of the internet in all areas of our lives. The biggest advantages of web-based education are that it can be accessed anytime, anywhere and by anyone. In various studies conducted with university students, it is seen that web-based education increases the level of knowledge and is effective in behavior change.

In this period when technological education emerged, many instructional design models developed were used in web-based education. Among these models, the most widely used ADDIE model. ADDIE is a model that provides a systematic and comprehensive definition and implementation of design principles. The web-based training in the research will be given based on the ADDIE Model approach. Basic elements of the instructional design process in the model; It is in the form of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The use of a model in web-designed education ensures that the educational content is prepared according to the needs, the training steps are not skipped and systematic.

In the literature review and web researches, a web-based education was not encountered in national and international publications where university students could reach the correct and scientific information about reproductive health. In this context, the investigators believe that web-based education to be provided with the ADDIE Model approach will reduce the sexual myths and risky behaviors that young people believe.

This study was planned to examine the effect of web-based reproductive health education given to university students on belief in sexual myths and risky behaviors.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Health Risk Behaviors Reproductive Health Sexual Health Other: Education Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: There is a control group and an experimental group in this research. Pre-test and post-test will be carried out with a pattern. A pre-test will be made to the control and experimental groups simultaneously. Then, the experimental group will be trained and the final test will be conducted simultaneously with the non-intervened control group.
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description: The participants will not know which group they are in. they won't interact with each other.
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: The Effect of Web Based Reproductive Health Education on Sexual Myths and Risky Behaviors in University Students
Estimated Study Start Date : February 22, 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date : April 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 2021

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Training Group Other: Education
With the training module prepared according to the ADDIE model, the intervention group will be trained on reproductive health and sexual health.

No Intervention: Control Group

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Personal Information Form [ Time Frame: Baseline (To both groups before the intervention) ]
    This form, which was prepared by the researchers by scanning the literature, in order to describe the sociodemographic and reproductive health information of the students participating in the study, and the platforms / individuals from which this information was obtained, consists of 20 questions.

  2. Sexual Myths Scale [ Time Frame: Change in believing sexual myths at Baseline and 5 weeks of education) ]

    It is a scale developed to describe sexual myths scale by Gölbaşı et al. in 2016. The scale consists of 8 sub-dimensions and 28 items that allow the multidimensional evaluation of sexual myths.

    Sub Dimensions and Item Numbers; Sexual orientation: 1-5. Articles, Gender: 6-11. Substances, Age and sexuality: 12-15. Substances, Sexual behavior: 16-18. Substances, Masturbation: 19-20. Sexual violence: 21-24. Substances, Sexual intercourse: 25-26. Substances, Sexual Satisfaction: 27-28. Substances. Each item of the scale is evaluated on a 5-point: "Never agree" = 1, "Disagree" = 2, "Undecided" = 3, "Partially Agree" = 4, "Strongly Agree" = 5. The total score for the scale is obtained by adding the scores given to each item. The minimum score obtained from the scale is 28 and the maximum score is 140. The scale does not have a cut-off point. The higher the score, the higher the sexual myths.

  3. Information and Risky Behavior Form Specific to Reproductive Health Education [ Time Frame: Change in risky behavior at Baseline and 5 weeks of education) ]
    It is a form consisting of 47 questions created after the literature review. Contains; male and female anatomy and physiology, regulation of fertility, sexually transmitted infections and risky behaviors related to these issues. The items in the form consist of true and false statements that evaluate students' knowledge and attitudes about risky behaviors in the educational content. The questions in each item will be answered as "True, False, No Idea". The questions in the form will be submitted for expert opinion. A pre-test will be conducted to detect the presence of incomprehensible expressions. The score of the form will be calculated by giving 1 point to each correct answer and the highest score will be 47.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 24 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Being a first year undergraduate / associate degree student
  • Not taking any anatomy or women's health classes
  • Volunteering to participate in research
  • Being in the age range of 18-24

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Voluntarily leaving the research
  • Not attending the trainings given in the experimental group

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04579432

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Güzin Ünlü
İstanbul, Turkey
Contact: Güzin Ünlü    05365759570   
Sub-Investigator: Meltem Mecdi Kaydırak         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa
Aggarwal, A. K., & Bento, R. (2002). Web-based education. In Web-based instructional learning (pp. 59-77). IGI Global.
Apay, S. E., Akpınar, R. B., & Arslan, S. (2013). Öğrencilerin cinsel mitlerinin incelenmesi. Anadolu Hemşirelik ve Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 16(2), 96-102.
Apay, S. E., Nagorska, M., Akpınar, R. B., Celik, A. S., & Binkowska-Bury, M. (2013). Student comparison of sexual myths: two-country case. Sexuality and Disability, 31(3), 249-262.
Aygin, D., Açıl, H., Yaman, Ö., & Çelik Yılmaz, A. (2017). Üniversitede okuyan kadın öğrencilerin cinsel mitler ile ilgili görüşleri. Androloji Bülteni, 19(2), 44-49.
Baghaie, R., Rasouli, D., Rahmani, A., Mohammadpour, Y., & Jafarizade, H. (2012). Effect of web-based education on cardiac disrhythmia learning in nursing student of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 12(4), 240-248.
Çetin, Ö., & Aslan, E. (2019) Adölesanlarda Sık Görülen Jinekolojik Sorunlar. Sağlık Bilimlerinde İleri Araştırmalar Dergisi, (2), 33-43.
Gölbaşı, Z. (2005). Adölesan Dönem Üreme Sağlığı Sorunları Ve Etkileyen Faktörler. Anadolu Hemşirelik Ve Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(1), 100-108.
İpek, İ., Sözcü, Ö. F., & Ziatdinov, R. (2013). Birleştirilmiş E-Öğrenme Tasarımı Modeli ve Hızlı Öğretim Tasarımı Stratejileri. Akademik Bilişim Konferansı, Akdeniz Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Antalya-Türkiye (http://ab. org. tr/ab13/bildiri/).
Kalembo, F. W., Zgambo, M., & Yukai, D. (2013). Effective adolescent sexual and reproductive health education programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 11(2), 32-42.
Kukulu, K., Gürsoy, E., & Sözer, G. A. (2009). Turkish university students' beliefs in sexual myths. Sexuality and Disability, 27(1), 49-59.
Moradi, A., Salimi, M., Esfarjani, S. V., & Haghighizadeh, M. H. (2017). Effect of Web-based education on knowledge and preventive behaviors of Iron Deficiency Anemia among high school girls. Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine, 1, 445.
Özerbaş, M. A., & Kaya, A. B. (2017). Öğretim Tasarımı Çalışmalarının İçerik Analizi: ADDIE Modeli Örneklemi. Journal Of Turkish Educational Sciences, 15(1).
Reis, M., Ramiro, L., de Matos, M. G., & Diniz, J. A. (2011). The effects of sex education in promoting sexual and reproductive health in Portuguese university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 477-485.
Solikhah, S. N. (2015). Knowledge and behaviour about adolescent reproductive health in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Public Health, 4(4), 326-331.
United Nations (UN). (2015). The 2030 Agenda For Sustainable Development. access link: Access Date:14.06.2020
Wang, S. K., & Hsu, H. Y. (2008, November). Using ADDIE model to design Second Life activities for online learners. In E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 2045-2050). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Integrating poverty and gender into health programmes: a sourcebook for health professionals: module on sexual and reproductive health. Access Lİnk: Access Date: 14.06.2020

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Responsible Party: Güzin Ünlü, Principal Investigator, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa Identifier: NCT04579432    
Other Study ID Numbers: 58797649-050-
First Posted: October 8, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 14, 2021
Last Verified: January 2021
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Güzin Ünlü, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa:
Health Risk Behaviors
Reproductive Health
Sexual Health
Sexual Myths