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The Use of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04250441
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : January 31, 2020
Last Update Posted : July 24, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Neurological Associates of West Los Angeles

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this open label study is to evaluate longer term tolerability and early efficacy of transcranial ultrasound in the treatment of patients with refractory depression and anxiety.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Depression Anxiety Device: Focused Transcranial Ultrasound Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The present study is designed as an open label study of patients with refractory depression and anxiety to evaluate longer term tolerability and early efficacy of transcranial ultrasound treatment. Baseline and outcome measures in this study utilize validated tests that are appropriate for repeated measures which are not affected by practice effects. For patients with refractory depression, the target will be the subgenual cingulate (Brodmann's area 25) through a trans temporal scalp window. For patients with anxiety, the target will be the amygdala. Targeting will include reference to scalp fiducials based on the obtained MRI and Doppler waveform confirmation will be obtained because of the ability of TCD to record Doppler signal from the posterior cerebral artery that runs medial to the mesial temporal lobe.

On the day of the ultrasound appointment, patients will undergo ten to thirty minutes of transcranial ultrasound treatment. The sonification device will be aimed at the subgenual cingulate or amygdala, depending on the predetermined condition. Targeting will include reference to scalp fiducials based on the obtained MRI; confirmation of target accuracy will either be obtained by Doppler waveform confirmation or optical tracking technology which co-registers patient neuroimaging with real space. Patients will undergo 8 total sessions of focused ultrasound. Patients will be evaluated at baseline and upon final ultrasound treatment using the same measures obtained upon entry. Safety and any adverse events will be monitored closely.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 100 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Use of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
Actual Study Start Date : November 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2023

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Anxiety Ultrasound

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment
All patients enrolled will receive transcranial focused ultrasound. Target location is dependent on patient condition.
Device: Focused Transcranial Ultrasound
The FDA has determined that power intensity limits of 720 mW/cm squared at 2 megaHertz is safe for clinical use; the proposed equipment works within these parameters. Furthermore, monitoring sessions up to one hour as proposed in this study are routinely used in patients even with acute brain injury at 2 megaHertz without any reports of complications induced by the ultrasound device. No brain heating, cavitation or bleeding has been identified with the proposed equipment and protocol. For each individual safety can be followed by performing a selective mental status exam at each session completion.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Beck Depression Inventory [ Time Frame: Baseline prior to ultrasound administration ]
    The BDI-II is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory. Each question involves four possible responses, ranging in intensity from "0" (this item does not apply) to "3" (this item applies severely). The test is scored as the sum of all of the response values; this number is used to determine the severity of depressive symptoms. A score of 0 to 3 is possible for each question with a maximum total score of 63 points. The standard cutoff scores are as follows: 0-13 total points = minimal depression; 14-19 total points = mild depression; 20-28 total points = moderate depression; and 29-63 total points = severe depression. A reduction in the total score by at least 30% is considered to be clinically significant.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient Depression Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline prior to ultrasound administration ]
    The PDQ-9 is a 9-item, self-report questionnaire to evaluate for depressive symptoms. Each question asks the patient if they have experienced a particular depressive symptom over the past two weeks. Answers may range from "0" (not at all), "1" (several days/week), "2" (more than half of the days), and "3" (nearly every day). Maximum total score is 27 points. A higher score indicates more severe depressive symptoms. A reduction in total score by at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  2. Patient Depression Questionnaire [ Time Frame: After final ultrasound (8 weeks from baseline) ]
    The PDQ-9 is a 9-item, self-report questionnaire to evaluate for depressive symptoms. Each question asks the patient if they have experienced a particular depressive symptom over the past two weeks. Answers may range from "0" (not at all), "1" (several days/week), "2" (more than half of the days), and "3" (nearly every day). Maximum total score is 27 points. A higher score indicates more severe depressive symptoms. A reduction in total score by at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  3. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline prior to ultrasound administration ]
    The HAM-D is a 17-item, interview style questionnaire. A trained staff member administers this form to a patient and scores the patients' responses on a scale of "0" (symptom absent) to "4" (most severe option per symptom). A higher total score indicates a more severe level of depression. The maximum possible score is 50 points. A change in score of at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  4. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [ Time Frame: After final ultrasound (8 weeks from baseline) ]
    The HAM-D is a 17-item, interview style questionnaire. A trained staff member administers this form to a patient and scores the patients' responses on a scale of "0" (symptom absent) to "4" (most severe option per symptom). A higher total score indicates a more severe level of depression. The maximum possible score is 50 points. A change in score of at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  5. Beck Anxiety Inventory [ Time Frame: Baseline prior to ultrasound administration ]
    The BAI is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of anxiety symptoms. Each of the 21 items asks whether the patient has experienced various anxiety symptoms in the last two weeks, and if so, how severely. Each question/answer is scored on a scale value of "0" (not at all) to "3" (severely). Higher total scores indicate more severe anxiety symptoms. The maximum total score possible is 63 points. The standard cutoff scores are: 0-7 = minimal anxiety; 8-15 = mild anxiety; 16-25 = moderate anxiety; 26-63 = severe anxiety. A reduction in score by at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  6. Beck Anxiety Inventory [ Time Frame: After final ultrasound (8 weeks from baseline) ]
    The BAI is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the severity of anxiety symptoms. Each of the 21 items asks whether the patient has experienced various anxiety symptoms in the last two weeks, and if so, how severely. Each question/answer is scored on a scale value of "0" (not at all) to "3" (severely). Higher total scores indicate more severe anxiety symptoms. The maximum total score possible is 63 points. The standard cutoff scores are: 0-7 = minimal anxiety; 8-15 = mild anxiety; 16-25 = moderate anxiety; 26-63 = severe anxiety. A reduction in score by at least 30% is considered clinically meaningful.

  7. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline prior to ultrasound administration ]
    The HAM-A is an observer/rater scale consisting of 14 items, each defined by a series of symptoms, and measures both psychic anxiety (mental agitation and psychological distress) and somatic anxiety (physical complaints related to anxiety). Each item is scored on a scale of 0 (not present) to 4 (severe), with a total score range of 0-56, where <17 indicates mild severity, 18-24 mild to moderate severity and 25-30 moderate to severe.

  8. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [ Time Frame: After final ultrasound (8 weeks from baseline) ]
    The HAM-A is an observer/rater scale consisting of 14 items, each defined by a series of symptoms, and measures both psychic anxiety (mental agitation and psychological distress) and somatic anxiety (physical complaints related to anxiety). Each item is scored on a scale of 0 (not present) to 4 (severe), with a total score range of 0-56, where <17 indicates mild severity, 18-24 mild to moderate severity and 25-30 moderate to severe.

  9. Beck Depression Inventory [ Time Frame: After final ultrasound (8 weeks from baseline) ]
    The BDI-II is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory. Each question involves four possible responses, ranging in intensity from "0" (this item does not apply) to "3" (this item applies severely). The test is scored as the sum of all of the response values; this number is used to determine the severity of depressive symptoms. A score of 0 to 3 is possible for each question with a maximum total score of 63 points. The standard cutoff scores are as follows: 0-13 total points = minimal depression; 14-19 total points = mild depression; 20-28 total points = moderate depression; and 29-63 total points = severe depression. A reduction in the total score by at least 30% is considered to be clinically significant.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 93 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria for Depression:

  • Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder
  • Score greater than 13 on the Beck Depression Inventory
  • Failure to remit with 3 antidepressants
  • At least 18 years of age

Inclusion Criteria for Anxiety:

  • Diagnosis of Generalized or Acute Anxiety Disorder
  • Score greater than 22 on the Beck Anxiety Inventory
  • Failure to remit with 3 anxiolytics
  • At least 18 years of age

Exclusion Criteria for Depression & Anxiety:

  • Cognitive decline clearly related to an acute illness
  • Subjects unable to give informed consent
  • Subjects who would not be able to lay down without excessive movement in a calm environment sufficiently long enough to be able to achieve sleep
  • Recent surgery or dental work within 3 months of the scheduled procedure.
  • Pregnancy, women who may become pregnant or are breastfeeding
  • Advanced terminal illness
  • Any active cancer or chemotherapy
  • Any other neoplastic illness or illness characterized by neovascularity
  • Macular degeneration
  • Subjects with scalp rash or open wounds on the scalp (for example from treatment of squamous cell cancer)
  • Advanced kidney, pulmonary, cardiac or liver failure

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04250441


Locations
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United States, California
Neurological Associates of West LA
Santa Monica, California, United States, 90403
Sponsors and Collaborators
Neurological Associates of West Los Angeles
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Sheldon Jordan, M.D. Neurology Management Associates
Publications:

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Responsible Party: Neurological Associates of West Los Angeles
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04250441    
Other Study ID Numbers: 32222-2
First Posted: January 31, 2020    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 24, 2020
Last Verified: July 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: Yes
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Depression
Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders