The KHENERGYZE Study
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04165239|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 15, 2019
Last Update Posted : August 31, 2022
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Mitochondrial diseases, estimated prevalence 1 in 4,300 adults, is caused by pathogenic mutations in genes finally encoding for mitochondrial proteins of the various enzyme complexes of the OXPHOS. Among these mutations, the 3243A>G nucleotide change in the mitochondrially encoded transfer RNALeu(UUR) leucine 1 gene (MT TL 1) is the most prevalent one. The OXPHOS dysfunction resulting from such mutations leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to irreversible oxidative damage of macromolecules, or to more selective and reversible redox modulation of cell signaling that may impact (adult) neurogenesis.
Despite advances in the understanding of mitochondrial disorders, treatment options are extremely limited and, to date, largely supportive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel treatments. KH176, a new active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), is an orally bio-available small molecule under development for the treatment of these disorders (see Section 1.4). The current study will further evaluate the effect of KH176 in various cognitive domains and evaluate the effect of different doses of KH176 (See Section 1.5).
In view of the growing recognition of the importance of mitochondrial function in maintaining cognitive processes in the brain, as well as the understanding of the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of KH176 following the two clinical studies described above, a more detailed study is indicated of the effects of KH176 in various cognitive domains, using the confirmed safe and well-tolerated KH176 dose of 100 mg bid, as well as a lower dose of 50 mg bid. The primary objective is an evaluation of KH176 in the attention domain of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the visual identification test score of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Mitochondrial Diseases Mitochondrial Myopathies Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies MELAS Syndrome MIDD||Drug: KH176 Drug: Placebo||Phase 2|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||27 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Crossover Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||The study will be a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre, three-way cross-over study. Twenty-seven subjects, with a confirmed mitochondrial DNA tRNALeu(UUR) 3243A>G mutation and with clinical signs of mitochondrial disease including attentional dysfunction, and fulfilling pre-defined cardiac exclusion criteria, will be randomised over three treatment sequences as assigned by Latin-square. Each group will have 3 treatment periods of 28 days each, separated by 14-day washout periods between treatments. During the 28-day treatment periods, subjects will receive bid oral administration of 50 mg KH176,100 mg KH176, or placebo in the sequence as applicable for the group.|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||A Phase IIb Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Multi-centre, Confirmative Three-way Cross-over Study on Cognitive Function With Two Doses of KH176 in Subjects With a Genetically Confirmed Mitochondrial DNA tRNALeu(UUR) m.3243A>G Mutation.|
|Actual Study Start Date :||October 30, 2019|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 24, 2022|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 24, 2022|
Experimental: Treatment A
Oral administration of 50 mg KH176 twice daily
Oral administration of 50 mg KH176 twice daily
Other Name: Sonlicromanol
Experimental: Treatment B
Oral administration of 100 mg KH176 twice daily
Oral administration of 100 mg KH176 twice daily
Other Name: Sonlicromanol
Placebo Comparator: Treatment C
Oral administration of matching placebo twice daily
Oral administration of matching placebo twice daily
- Cognitive functioning: Attention [ Time Frame: One month ]The attention domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the visual Identification Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Executive functioning [ Time Frame: One month ]The executive functioning domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the Groton Maze Learning Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Psychomotor function [ Time Frame: One month ]The psychomotor functioning domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the Detection Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Working Memeory [ Time Frame: One month ]The working memory domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the One Back Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Visual learning [ Time Frame: One month ]The visual learning domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the One Card Learning Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Verbal learning [ Time Frame: One month ]The verbal learning functioning domain score of cognitive functioning, as assessed by the International Shopping List Test of the Cogstate computerised cognitive testing battery
- Test of Attentional Performance (TAP) [ Time Frame: One month ]Standardised test to evaluate alertness and mental flexibility
- Beck Depression Inventory [ Time Frame: One month ]21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, for measuring the severity of depression
- Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) [ Time Frame: One month ]Subject-reported outcome measure and comprises 14 items equally divided over the two subscales anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D)
- Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Scale for Adults (NMDAS) [ Time Frame: One month ]Semi-quantitative clinical rating scale designed for mitochondrial disease. The rating scale explores several domains: current function, system specific involvement, current clinical assessment and quality of life
- Number of headache days [ Time Frame: One month ]Self report diary
- Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) [ Time Frame: One month ]Standardized test measure individual hearing threshold levels
- University of Penn Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) [ Time Frame: One month ]Test to measure the individual's ability to detect odors at a suprathreshold level.
- Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ) [ Time Frame: One month ]Questionnaire to evaluate subjective cognitive functioning.
- Neuro-QoL Fatigue Short Form (quality in life in neurological disorders) [ Time Frame: One month ]8-item self assessment questionnaire evaluating the perception of fatigue and its impact in daily life activities
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Males and females aged 18 years or older at screening.
- Ability and willingness to provide written Informed Consent prior to screening evaluations.
- Confirmed mitochondrial DNA tRNALeu(UUR) m.3243A>G mutation.
- Positive NMDAS score >10 at Screening.
Three or more clinical features, with no other causative unifying diagnosis, found to commonly occur in subjects with a m.3243A>G mutation:
- Developmental delay
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Gastrointestinal complaints
- Progressive External Ophtalmoplegia (PEO) and retinopathy
- Exercise intolerance
- Migraine (with or without aura), specified by at least five attacks fulfilling diagnostic criteria B-D:
B. Headache attacks lasting 4-72 hours (untreated or unsuccessfully treated)
C. Headache has at least two of the following four characteristics:
- unilateral location
- pulsating quality
- moderate or severe pain intensity
- aggravation or causing avoidance of routine physical activity (e.g. walking or climbing stairs)
D. During headache at least one of the following:
1. nausea and/or vomiting 2. photophobia and phonophobia 6. Attentional dysfunction score (Cogstate Identification test) ≥ 0.5 standard deviations poorer than healthy controls at Screening.
7. Disease appropriate physical and mental health as established at Screening by medical history, physical examination, ECG and vital signs recording, and results of clinical chemistry and haematology testing as judged by the investigator.
8. Objectified Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) ≥45% (echocardiography, or otherwise).
9. Left Ventricular (LV) wall thickness ≤15 mm. 10. Left atrium dilatation ≤ 40 mL/m2. Note: No need to test LV parameters (criteria #8, #9, #10) if favourable echocardiography (or otherwise) results dated less than 6 months prior to Screening are available.
11. Women of childbearing potential must be willing to use highly effective contraceptive methods during the entire study, i.e., combined (estrogen and progestogen containing) oral, intravaginal or transdermal hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation;, oral, injectable or implantable progestogen-only hormonal contraception associated with inhibition of ovulation; use of an intrauterine device; an intrauterine hormone releasing system, bilateral tubal occlusion and vasectomy of the partner.
Any hormonal contraception method must be supplemented with a barrier method (preferably male condom).
Vasectomised partner is considered a highly effective birth control method provided that partner is the sole sexual partner of the subject and that the vasectomised partner has received medical assessment of the surgical success. Sexual abstinence is considered a highly effective method only if defined as refraining from heterosexual intercourse during the entire period of risk associated with the study treatments. Reliability of sexual abstinence needs to be evaluated in relation to the duration of the clinical trial and the preferred and usual lifestyle of the subject. Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception.
Note 1: Natural family planning methods, female condom, cervical cap or diaphragm are not considered adequate contraceptive methods in the context of this study.
Note 2: To be considered not of childbearing potential, potential female subjects must be post-menopausal for at least two years, or have been surgically sterilised (bilateral tubal ligation, hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy) for at least 6 months prior to Screening.
Note 3: KH176 has been shown non-genotoxic judged from the Ames test, Chromosomal Aberration test and in vivo Micronucleus test. Moreover, appreciable systemic exposure from the exposure to (~2.5 mL) semen is extremely unlikely. However, until reproductive toxicology studies have confirmed that KH176 does not adversely affect normal reproduction in adult males and females, as well as causing developmental toxicity in the offspring, the following contraceptive precautions must be adhered to:
- male subjects with female partners of childbearing potential must be willing to use condoms during the entire study.
female partners of childbearing potential of male subjects must be willing to use adequate contraceptive methods during the entire study, i.e., a hormonal contraceptive method (pill, vaginal ring, patch, implant, injectable, hormone-medicated intrauterine device) or an intrauterine device.
12. Able to comply with the study requirements, including swallowing study medication.
- Surgery of gastro-intestinal tract that might interfere with absorption.
- Treatment with an investigational product within 3 months or 5 times the half-life of the investigational product (whichever is longer) prior to the first dose of the study medication.
- Documented history of ventricular tachycardia (HR>110 beats/min).
- History of acute heart failure, (family) history of unexplained syncope or congenital long and short QT syndrome or sudden death.
Clinically relevant abnormal laboratory, vital signs or physical or mental health;
- Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) or alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) > 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN), or bilirubin > 3 x ULN at screening. If a patient has ASAT or ALAT > 3 x ULN but < 3.5 x ULN, re-assessment is allowed at the investigator's discretion.
- Estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 60 mL/min according to the CKD-EPI formula at screening.
- Systolic Blood pressure > 150 mmHg at screening or baseline.
- All other clinically relevant parameters at screening or baseline as judged by the Investigator.
- Clinically relevant abnormal ECG or cardiac functioning, defined as ST-segment elevation > 1 mm in I, II, III, aVL ,aVF ,V3 ,V4 ,V5 ,V6; > 2 mm in V1, V2; QTc > 450 ms for male subjects; QTc: > 470ms for female subjects (local, machine read), T-top inversion in >1 consecutive lead.
- Serum Hyper-potassium (> 5.0 mEq/L).
- Serum Hypo-potassium (< 3.5 mEq/L).
- History of ischemic heart disease.
- Symptomatic heart failure.
- Clinically relevant aorta and/or mitralis valvular defect as judged by the investigator.
- Pregnancy or breast feeding (females).
- Poor nutritional state as judged by the investigator.
- History of hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to any of the components of the investigational drug.
- Medical history of drug abuse (illegal drugs such as cannabinoids, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates or problematic use of prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines, opiates).
The use of any of the following medication and/or supplements within 4 weeks or 5 times the half-life (whichever is longer) prior to the first dosing of the study medication:
- (multi)vitamins, co-enzyme Q10, Vitamin E, riboflavin, and anti-oxidant supplements (including, but not limited to idebenone/EPI-743, mitoQ); unless stable for at least one month before first dosing and remaining stable throughout the study.
any medication negatively influencing mitochondrial functioning (including but not limited to valproic acid, glitazones, statins, anti-virals, amiodarone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)), unless stable for at least one month before first dosing and remaining stable throughout the study.
Note: thus, mitoQ and any medication negatively influencing mitochondrial functioning are allowed as long as the dose has been stable for at least one month prior to first dosing and remains stable throughout the study.
- any strong Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 inhibitors (all 'conazoles-anti-fungals', HIV antivirals, grapefruit).
- strong CYP3A4 inducers (including HIV antivirals, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampicin, St. John's wort, pioglitazone, troglitazone).
- any medication known to affect cardiac repolarisation, unless the QTc interval at screening is normal during stable treatment (all anti-psychotics, several anti-depressants, e.g. nor/amitriptyline, fluoxetine, anti-emetics: domperidone (motilium®) granisetron, ondansetron). For a complete list see https://crediblemeds.org.
- any medication metabolised by CYP with a narrow therapeutical width. For reference (Germany and United Kingdom): drug interaction table of Indiana University (http://medicine.iupui.edu/clinpharm/ddis/clinical-table/). For reference (The Netherlands): KNMP Kennisbank (https://www.knmp.nl/producten/knmp-kennisbank/inloggen-knmp-kennisbank. For reference (all other countries): drug interaction table of Indiana University (http://medicine.iupui.edu/clinpharm/ddis/clinical-table/).
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04165239
|Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen|
|Kopenhagen, Denmark, DK2100|
|München, Bayern, Germany, 80336|
|Radboud University Medical Center|
|Institute for Ageing and Health Newcastle University|
|Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom|
|Responsible Party:||Khondrion BV|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||November 15, 2019 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||August 31, 2022|
|Last Verified:||August 2022|
|Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:|
|Plan to Share IPD:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:||No|
|Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:||No|
Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS)
Nervous System Diseases
Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn
Brain Diseases, Metabolic
Central Nervous System Diseases
Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases
Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs