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Rituximab and Ibrutinib (RI) Versus Dexamethasone, Rituximab and Cyclophosphamide (DRC) as Initial Therapy for Waldenström's Macroglobulinaemia (RAINBOW)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT04061512
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : August 19, 2019
Last Update Posted : December 17, 2020
Janssen-Cilag Ltd.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University College, London

Brief Summary:

Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is a rare type of slow growing lymphoma. It develops when white blood cells grow abnormally.

Typically a disease of the elderly, the median age of presentation is >70 years and the current treatment for WM is unsatisfactory, with incomplete responses and inevitable recurrence. Therefore there is a need to find alternative treatments that are more effective, leading to lasting responses and improved quality of life.

The RAINBOW study is a phase 2-3 trial assessing 'chemotherapy free' treatment as primary therapy for WM which can potentially improve response outcome, durability and importantly, reduce toxicity for WM patients. This approach will be done using the drug Ibrutinib, which in combination with rituximab (RI) will be the experimental arm. As there is no agreed standard on first-line therapy for WM, the control arm is the current treatment based on the most recently published clinical trial results. The control arm consists of rituximab, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (DCR), and is widely recommended by international consensus as appropriate treatment for first-line therapy for WM.

In this study, 148 adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with treatment naïve WM will be randomised on a 1:1 ratio to either the treatment or control arm.

Randomised treatment lasts for a maximum of 6 cycles and response will be assessed following 3 cycles of treatment and completion of randomised treatment at approximately 24 weeks after commencing treatment. RI patients may then have up to 5 years of Ibrutinib monotherapy.

Patients will be seen regularly during treatment and then every 3 months for 5 years after treatment discontinuation. Patients will enter annual follow up for survival until the end of trial (including progressed patients).

The study will be conducted at NHS hospitals and is expected to last 9 years and 6 months.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Drug: Dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, rituximab Drug: Rituximab, ibrutinib Phase 2 Phase 3

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 148 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Randomised Phase II/III Study of Rituximab and Ibrutinib (RI) Versus Dexamethasone, Rituximab and Cyclophosphamide (DRC) as Initial Therapy for Waldenström's Macroglobulinaemia
Actual Study Start Date : February 3, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 28, 2029
Estimated Study Completion Date : February 28, 2029

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: DRC Arm
The DRC arm (chemotherapy) is the control arm and consists of rituximab, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is widely recommended by international consensus as appropriate treatment for first-line therapy for WM.
Drug: Dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, rituximab
DRC Arm (chemotherapy) consists of dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and rituximab treatment

Experimental: RI Arm
The RI arm (chemotherapy free) arm will be using the drug ibrutinib, which in combination with rituximab (RI) will be the experimental arm.
Drug: Rituximab, ibrutinib
RI Arm (chemotherapy free) consists of rituximab and ibrutinib treatment

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of patients achieving a preliminary efficacy (response) of the 'chemotherapy free' combination of rituximab and ibrutinib (RI) as primary therapy for WM. [ Time Frame: Overall response rate at week 24 ]
  2. Progression free survival (PFS) analysis of rituximab/ibrutinib (RI) when compared to dexamethasone/rituximab/cyclophosphamide (DRC) at 2 years after the last randomisation [ Time Frame: 2 years after the last randomisation ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety and tolerability of RI compared to DRC assessed by the frequency of serious and non-serious adverse events according to CTCAE v5.0 [ Time Frame: until 30 calendar days post last IMP administration ]
  2. Overall response rate (defined as complete response [CR], very good partial response [VGPR], partial response [PR] and minor response [MR]) of RI compared to DRC (at end of randomised treatment and best response over any time point) [ Time Frame: through study completion, an average of 2 years. ]
  3. Time to next treatment [ Time Frame: through study completion, an average of 2 years. ]
  4. Duration of response of RI compared to DRC [ Time Frame: through study completion, an average of 2 years. ]
    (responding patients only)

  5. Overall survival (OS) of patients treated with RI compared to DRC [ Time Frame: date of randomisation until the date of death (of any cause) ]
  6. Quality of Life:EQ-5D-5L questionnaire [ Time Frame: 1 year and 2 years after completion of randomised treatment against the baseline quality of life score ]
    Change in quality of life (QoL) responses in each arm assessed by EQ-5D-5L questionnaire

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients ≥ 18 years
  2. Confirmed diagnosis of WM (according to consensus panel / WHO criteria) with measurable IgM paraprotein
  3. Previously untreated disease at any stage requiring therapy at the discretion of the treating physician. Suggested criteria for initiating treatment include:

    • haematological suppression to Hb <10g/dl, or neutrophils <1.5x109/l or platelets <150x109/l
    • clinical evidence of hyperviscosity
    • bulky lymphadenopathy and/or bulky splenomegaly
    • presence of B symptoms
  4. No previous chemotherapy (prior plasma exchange and steroids are permissible)
  5. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status grade 0 - 2
  6. Life expectancy of greater than 6 months
  7. Written informed consent
  8. Willing to comply with the contraceptive requirements of the trial
  9. Negative serum or urine pregnancy test for women of childbearing potential (WOCBP)

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Prior therapy for WM
  2. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with no detectable serum IgM paraprotein
  3. CNS involvement with WM
  4. Autoimmune cytopenias
  5. Major surgery within 4 weeks prior to randomisation
  6. Clinically significant cardiac disease including the following:

    • Myocardial infarction within 6 months prior to randomisation
    • Unstable angina within 3 months prior to randomisation
    • New York Heart Association class III or IV congestive heart failure
    • History of clinically significant arrhythmias (e.g. sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, torsades de pointes)
    • QTcF > 480 msecs based on Fredericia's formula or Bazette's formula
    • History of Mobitz II second degree or third degree heart block without a permanent pacemaker in place
    • Uncontrolled hypertension as indicated by a minimum of 2 consecutive blood pressure measurements showing systolic blood pressure > 170 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure > 105 mm Hg
    • Cardiac event within 6 months of screening (e.g. coronary artery stent) requiring dual antiplatelet treatment
  7. History of stroke or intracranial haemorrhage within 6 months prior to randomisation
  8. Requires anticoagulation with warfarin or equivalent vitamin K antagonists (direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) allowed)
  9. History of severe bleeding disorders considered not to be disease related (Haemophilia A, B or von Willebrand's disease)
  10. Requires ongoing treatment with a strong CYP3A inhibitor or inducer
  11. Known infection with HIV, or serologic status reflecting active hepatitis B or C infection as follows:

    • Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In addition, if negative for HBsAg but HBcAb positive (regardless of HBsAb status), a HB DNA test will be performed and if positive the patient will be excluded
    • Presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody. Patients with presence of HCV antibody are eligible if HCV RNA is undetectable
  12. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding or males expecting to conceive or father children at any point from the start of treatment until the end of the "at risk period"
  13. Renal failure (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min as estimated by the Cockroft-Gault equation)
  14. Patients with chronic liver disease with hepatic impairment Child-Pugh class B or C
  15. Known history of anaphylaxis following exposure to rat or mouse derived CDR-grafted humanised monoclonal antibodies.
  16. Inability to swallow oral medication
  17. Disease significantly affecting gastrointestinal function and/or inhibiting small intestine absorption (e.g. malabsorption syndrome, resection of the small bowel, poorly controlled inflammatory bowel disease)
  18. Active systemic infection requiring treatment
  19. Concomitant treatment with another investigational agent
  20. Any life-threatening illness, medical condition, organ system dysfunction, need for profound anticoagulation, or bleeding disorder, which, in the investigator's opinion, could compromise the patient's safety, or put the study at risk
  21. Unwilling or unable to take PCP prophylaxis (e.g. cotrimoxazole)
  22. History of prior malignancy, with the exception of the following:

    • Malignancy treated with curative intent and with no evidence of active disease present for more than 3 years prior to screening and felt to be at low risk for recurrence by treating physician
    • Adequately treated non-melanomatous skin cancer or lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial bladder cancer, carcinoma in situ of the cervix or breast or localized Gleason score 6 prostate cancer without current evidence of disease.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT04061512

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Contact: RAINBOW Trial Coordinator 0207 679 9243
Contact: Richard Jenner

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United Kingdom
The Royal Bournemouth and Christchurch Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
Bournemouth, United Kingdom
Contact: Helen McCarthy         
East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
Canterbury, United Kingdom
Contact: Jindriska Lindsay         
Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust Recruiting
London, United Kingdom
Contact: Karan Wadehra         
Barts Health NHS Trust Recruiting
London, United Kingdom
Contact: Rebecca Auer         
University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
London, United Kingdom
Contact: Shirley D'Sa         
Christie NHS Foundation Trust Recruiting
Manchester, United Kingdom
Contact: Kim Linton         
University Hospitals Plymouth NHS Trust Recruiting
Plymouth, United Kingdom
Contact: David Lewis         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University College, London
Janssen-Cilag Ltd.
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Responsible Party: University College, London Identifier: NCT04061512    
Other Study ID Numbers: UCL/18/0438
First Posted: August 19, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 17, 2020
Last Verified: December 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Hemostatic Disorders
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Blood Protein Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Lymphatic Diseases
Immunoproliferative Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Autonomic Agents