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Supine Exercise in HPS Patients With Orthodeoxia

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04004104
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : July 1, 2019
Last Update Posted : June 4, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto

Brief Summary:

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare condition that presents in about a quarter of patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, a small subset of these HPS patients also have orthodeoxia, defined as a drop in oxygen levels when they are sitting up (upright), as opposed to lying flat (supine). At present, there is little known about this condition. Patients diagnosed with HPS and orthodeoxia experience reduced ability to exercise, especially when upright. While standard cardiopulmonary exercise is routinely performed in the sitting position, there are machines that enable candidates to exercise in the supine position. This is especially relevant in patients with severe HPS, with clinically significant orthodeoxia, where conventional upright exercise is difficult. Currently there is a gap in the literature regarding the efficacy of supine exercise compared to upright exercise in these patients. Due to their improvement in dyspnea when lying supine, it is predicted that these patients will be able to exercise for a greater length of time and have increased exercise capacity, which can be projected to improve outcomes pre- and post-transplant.

Overall, HPS patients tend to experience hypoxemia and exercise limitation. Exercise limitation impacts quality of life, incidence and severity of comorbid conditions, and in those who are liver transplant candidates, low exercise tolerance deleteriously impacts transplant outcomes. Accordingly, a strategy that enables patients to exercise more often and/or for longer periods would offer direct benefits to patients with HPS, and if employed as part of an exercise program, could also improve exercise capacity, and thus, liver transplant outcomes.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of supine, compared to upright position on exercise in patients with HPS and orthodeoxia. We hypothesize that these patients will be able to exercise for longer in the supine compared to the upright position, given improved oxygen levels when supine.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Diagnostic Test: Upright Exercise Diagnostic Test: Supine Exercise Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

This is a 1 year randomized crossover controlled trial study of the effect of supine exercise position (intervention arm) compared to the upright exercise position (control arm) within 4 weeks. This is a single-center study conducted at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.

The exercise will be performed at a constant work rate, individualized for each participant. Peak work rate will be calculated using results from the most recent room air 6-minute walk test (6MWT), within the past 6 months. The equation used to estimate peak work rate is: Peak Work Rate = 0.168 x 6MWD (m) - 4.085 (ref Kozu Respirology 2010). The individualized constant work rate will be set at 70-80% of this estimated peak work rate.

The main stopping criterion will be the point at which, after standardized encouragement, the subject is unable to continue because of symptoms (i.e. patient does not wish to continue or cannot maintain a minimum peddling frequency of 40 rpm for ≥ 10 seconds). This is defined as the "tolerable limit" (tLIM). Additional safety-related stopping criteria will include: the appearance of life-threatening arrhythmias, a drop in systolic blood pressure by ≥ 10 mm Hg from baseline, or a desaturation below a set point for ≥ 30 s. The set saturation point will be chosen individually for each patient, as the lower of: 80% or the lowest saturation seen on room air 6MWT.

Exercise tests in each position, for each subject, will be standardized with respect to the proper seat adjustment relative to leg length and pedaling cadence (50-60 rpm). Inspiratory capacity will be measured before and after the exercise maneuver.

The cycle ergometer resistance will be set to the pre-determined constant work rate, as described above. There will be continuous monitoring of saturation, ECG, gas exchange, blood pressure, and subjective dyspnea/leg fatigue (Borg scale), with standardized verbal encouragement throughout. Participants will be asked to bring running shoes and comfortable exercise clothes, ensure that they have eaten before the test, to take all usual medications, and to avoid major exercise for 24 hours before the test.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 10 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Intervention Model Description: Participants will be randomized (through a random-number generator, and with cancelled allocation) to start with either an upright exercise test (control arm) or a supine exercise test (intervention arm) on a bicycle ergometer, and then complete the alternate test within 4 weeks.
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: The assessor (different from the PI) will not be present when the two exercise tests are performed. Additionally, the results will not be labeled with the specific position of the exercise test. In this manner, the assessor will be blinded to the exercise position and this blinding will strengthen the validity of the research outcomes.
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Physiological Effects of Supine Versus Upright Exercise in Patients With Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Orthodeoxia
Actual Study Start Date : July 15, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : August 31, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Control - Upright Exercise
Participants will perform upright exercise on a cycle ergometer. The opposite test will be completed within 4 weeks.
Diagnostic Test: Upright Exercise
Exercise is generally performed in the upright position.

Experimental: Intervention - Supine Exercise
Participants will perform supine exercise on a cycle ergometer. The opposite test will be completed within 4 weeks.
Diagnostic Test: Supine Exercise
Since HPS patients with orthodeoxia experience an improvement in their symptoms and oxygen levels when supine, the intervention will involve them performing exercise in the supine position.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Stopping time (tLIM) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The main stopping criterion will be the point at which, after standardized encouragement, the subject is unable to continue because of symptoms [defined as the "tolerable limit" (tLIM)]. Additional safety-related stopping criteria will include: the appearance of complex ventricular arrhythmias, intraventricular and/or atrioventricular conduction disorders, bradyarrhythmias, or a desaturation below a set point for ≥ 10 s. The set saturation point will be chosen individually for each patient, as the lower of: 80%, or the nadir desaturation seen on room air six-minute walk test (6MWT).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Isotime Oxygen Uptake (VO2) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Comparing oxygen uptake in the supine and upright position.

  2. Dyspnea [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Patient's subjective measure of shortness of breath using Borg scale. This scale ranges from 0 to 10, with 0 being no shortness of breath to 10 being maximal shortness of breath.

  3. Leg Fatigue [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Patient's subjective measure of leg fatigue using Borg scale. This scale ranges from 0 to 10, with 0 being no leg fatigue at all to 10 being maximal leg fatigue.

  4. Work Rate [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Constant work rate / resistance at which the cycle ergometer was set.

  5. Arterial Oxygen Saturation [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The saturation of oxygen in the arteries.

  6. Change in Inspiratory Capacity [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Measuring volume of air that can be maximally inspired after normal tidal breaths and comparing between supine and upright.

  7. Reason for Stopping Exercise [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Reason due to which tLIM was reached and exercise was stopped.

  8. Minute Ventilation (VE) [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The quantity of air expired out of the lungs per minute.

  9. Heart Rate [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The number of heart beats per minute, also known as pulse.

  10. VCO2 [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Carbon dioxide output per unit of time.

  11. VCO2 over VO2 [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The volume of carbon dioxide produced to the volume of oxygen consumed in respiration over a period of time, also known as respiratory quotient (RQ).

  12. HR over VO2 [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The change of heart rate to the volume of oxygen consumed in respiration over a period of time.

  13. VE over time [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The change of VE during the entire duration of the exercise.

  14. VO2/ HR over time [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The change of oxygen pulse during the entire duration of the exercise.

  15. Heart rate over time [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The change of heart rate during the entire duration of the exercise.

  16. Cardiac output [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The volume of the blood pumped by the heart through the circulatory system in a minute.

  17. Change in inspiratory capacity [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The difference of the maximum volume of air that can be inspired following a normal, quiet expiration

  18. VE max [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Maximum minute ventilation

  19. End tidal CO2 over time [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    The point at the end of exhalation when the CO2 reaches its highest concentration.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Diagnosis of moderate HPS (defined by liver disease, hypoxemia [PaO2 < 80 mmHg and AaDo2 (alveolar-arterial PO2 difference) ≥ 15 mmHg or ≥ 20 mmHg if age > 64 years] and IPVD (intrapulmonary vasodilatations) as shown by contrast echocardiography])
  2. Presence of orthodeoxia (PaO2 decrease by >4 mmHg when patient moves from supine to upright position).

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pulmonary hypertension (echocardiographic estimated right ventricular systolic pressure >/=50 mmHg and/or right heart catheterization mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure </= 15 mmHg);
  2. Significant obstructive ventilatory impairment (FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.65) (FEV=forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC=forced vital capacity)
  3. Known significant coronary artery disease;
  4. Significant neurologic, orthopedic or rheumatological disorders preventing the use of a cycle ergometer;
  5. Other absolute contraindications to submaximal tests (uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia with hemodynamic compromise, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, decompensated heart failure and acute cardiopulmonary illness);
  6. Moderate or severe ascites.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04004104


Contacts
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Contact: Samir Gupta, MD, MSc (416) 864-6060 ext 2252 GuptaS@smh.ca

Locations
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Canada, Ontario
St. Michael's Hospital Recruiting
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5B 1W8
Contact: Samir Gupta, MD, MSc    (416) 864-6060 ext 2252    guptas@smh.ca   
Principal Investigator: Samir Gupta, MD, MSc         
Sponsors and Collaborators
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Samir Gupta, MD, MSc Clinician-Scientist
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04004104    
Other Study ID Numbers: 19-127
First Posted: July 1, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 4, 2020
Last Verified: June 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Keywords provided by St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto:
Supine Exercise
Orthodeoxia
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
Syndrome
Disease
Pathologic Processes
Liver Diseases
Digestive System Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases