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Fuel Selection During Eccentric Cycling With Glucose Ingestion

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03995693
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 24, 2019
Last Update Posted : March 26, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jonathan Tremblay, Université de Montréal

Brief Summary:
This study compares fuel selection during eccentric and concentric cycling, with (placebo) or without glucose ingestion during exercise. After a 2-week familiarization and habituation with the ergometers, subjects will complete four experimental conditions in a randomized order: concentric with placebo, eccentric with placebo, concentric with glucose, eccentric with glucose.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Exercise Damage Muscle Nutrition Dietary Supplement: Solution ingestion Behavioral: Constant load arm cranking Procedure: Expired gas sampling Procedure: Indirect respiratory calorimetry Procedure: Blood sampling Behavioral: Measure of maximal voluntary contraction force production Diagnostic Test: Measure of muscle electrical activity (EMG) Diagnostic Test: Measure of central and cutaneous temperatures Diagnostic Test: Measure of perceived exertion, pain perception and affective response Procedure: Measure of sweat and urine production Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Cycling on a cycle ergometer typically requires repeated concentric muscle contractions to push on the pedals and produce mechanical work. An eccentric cycling ergometer has a motor that rotates the cranks with a predetermined torque, the cyclist needs to resist to the movement of the cranks. This leads to eccentric muscle contractions, the work is thus produced while the muscle is lengthening (negative work). This mode of exercise is known to produce a lower oxygen consumption (energy cost) for the same mechanical power output and also leads to muscle damage which can interfere with fuel selection.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 15 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description: Opaque bottles to administer beverages with similar sweet taste.
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Fuel Selection During Eccentric Cycling: Comparison With Concentric Cycling and the Effect of Glucose Ingestion During Exercise
Actual Study Start Date : August 1, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 30, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 1, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Dextrose

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Concentric cycling with placebo ingestion
Participants will complete 45 minutes of arm cranking at an intensity corresponding to 30% of the concentric cycling VO2max, followed by 35 minutes of CONCENTRIC cycling on a recumbent ergometer at the same VO2. A PLACEBO solution (water with a non-caloric sweetener) will be ingested 30 min prior to starting exercise and every 15 min thereafter, until the exercise is completed. Indirect respiratory calorimetry, expired gas sampling, blood sampling will occur will be performed 4 minutes before each ingestion.
Dietary Supplement: Solution ingestion
Two ingestion modalities will be attributed (participant is blinded) in random order: a placebo and a glucose solution. The placebo contains water and a non-caloric sweetener (stevia) in order to reproduce the taste of the glucose solution. The glucose solution contains 6% glucose per volume, labelled with 13C. Both solutions will be administered in 8 doses: a bolus (333 mL) at rest, 30 minutes before the start of exercise, 167 mL immediately before exercise, 167 mL every 15 minutes during arm cranking, 125 mL immediately before concentric or eccentric pedalling and at 15 and 25 minutes of this last exercise period. In total, 1250 mL of solution will be administered during the experimental protocol.

Behavioral: Constant load arm cranking
The participants will perform 45 minutes of arm cranking on a specialized ergometer at a power output corresponding to 30% of their concentric cycling VO2max, previously measured.

Procedure: Expired gas sampling
Subjects will be asked, twice, to provide a forced expiration into a 10 mL plastic tube in order to collect a sample expired gases. This procedure will be done immediately before blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Indirect respiratory calorimetry
A mouthpiece and nose plug will be placed on the subject and expired gases will be analyzed by a metabolic cart during 3 minutes. This procedure will be done immediately before expired gas collection, blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Blood sampling
A catheter will be inserted in an antecubital vein and a saline solution will be continuously perfused to maintain vein open. 10 mL of blood will be collected immediately before ingesting the solution for a total of 80 mL.

Behavioral: Measure of maximal voluntary contraction force production
Maximal voluntary bilateral knee extensions (3 trials of 3-4 seconds each) will be performed on a chair equipped with force sensors to measure peak force production. These measurements will be done before the first ingestion, immediately before exercise, during the transition between arm cranking and concentric or eccentric cycling, and at the end of the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of muscle electrical activity (EMG)
Surface electrodes will be placed on the biceps and quadriceps to measure EMG throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of central and cutaneous temperatures
Wireless sensors will be placed on the skin of the arm, chest, back, abdomen, thigh and calf using adhesive tape. A wireless thermometric pill will be ingested the morning of the experiment. These will allow the measurement of skin and central temperatures throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of perceived exertion, pain perception and affective response
100 points scales (CR100) will be used to measure perceived exertion and pain perception immediately before ingesting the gas sampling. At the same time, affective responses will be assessed using the "Feeling scale".

Procedure: Measure of sweat and urine production
Sweat production and sampling will be performed by measuring body weight before and after exercise, after voiding the bladder. Mass loss through the urine and gases will be accounted for in order to compute sweat production. A sweat sample will be collected using a cotton gauze placed into a plastic collector affixed in the upper back of the participants. A urine sample will be taken from the urine collected at the end of the exercise period. Urine and sweat volumes along with respective urea concentrations will be used to compute protein oxidation during exercise.

Experimental: Concentric cycling with glucose ingestion
Participants will complete 45 minutes of arm cranking at an intensity corresponding to 30% of the concentric cycling VO2max, followed by 35 minutes of concentric cycling on a recumbent ergometer at the same VO2. A GLUCOSE solution (glucose with a trace amount of 13C) will be ingested 30 min prior to starting exercise and every 15 min thereafter, until the exercise is completed. Indirect respiratory calorimetry, expired gas sampling, blood sampling will occur will be performed 4 minutes before each ingestion.
Dietary Supplement: Solution ingestion
Two ingestion modalities will be attributed (participant is blinded) in random order: a placebo and a glucose solution. The placebo contains water and a non-caloric sweetener (stevia) in order to reproduce the taste of the glucose solution. The glucose solution contains 6% glucose per volume, labelled with 13C. Both solutions will be administered in 8 doses: a bolus (333 mL) at rest, 30 minutes before the start of exercise, 167 mL immediately before exercise, 167 mL every 15 minutes during arm cranking, 125 mL immediately before concentric or eccentric pedalling and at 15 and 25 minutes of this last exercise period. In total, 1250 mL of solution will be administered during the experimental protocol.

Behavioral: Constant load arm cranking
The participants will perform 45 minutes of arm cranking on a specialized ergometer at a power output corresponding to 30% of their concentric cycling VO2max, previously measured.

Procedure: Expired gas sampling
Subjects will be asked, twice, to provide a forced expiration into a 10 mL plastic tube in order to collect a sample expired gases. This procedure will be done immediately before blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Indirect respiratory calorimetry
A mouthpiece and nose plug will be placed on the subject and expired gases will be analyzed by a metabolic cart during 3 minutes. This procedure will be done immediately before expired gas collection, blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Blood sampling
A catheter will be inserted in an antecubital vein and a saline solution will be continuously perfused to maintain vein open. 10 mL of blood will be collected immediately before ingesting the solution for a total of 80 mL.

Behavioral: Measure of maximal voluntary contraction force production
Maximal voluntary bilateral knee extensions (3 trials of 3-4 seconds each) will be performed on a chair equipped with force sensors to measure peak force production. These measurements will be done before the first ingestion, immediately before exercise, during the transition between arm cranking and concentric or eccentric cycling, and at the end of the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of muscle electrical activity (EMG)
Surface electrodes will be placed on the biceps and quadriceps to measure EMG throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of central and cutaneous temperatures
Wireless sensors will be placed on the skin of the arm, chest, back, abdomen, thigh and calf using adhesive tape. A wireless thermometric pill will be ingested the morning of the experiment. These will allow the measurement of skin and central temperatures throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of perceived exertion, pain perception and affective response
100 points scales (CR100) will be used to measure perceived exertion and pain perception immediately before ingesting the gas sampling. At the same time, affective responses will be assessed using the "Feeling scale".

Procedure: Measure of sweat and urine production
Sweat production and sampling will be performed by measuring body weight before and after exercise, after voiding the bladder. Mass loss through the urine and gases will be accounted for in order to compute sweat production. A sweat sample will be collected using a cotton gauze placed into a plastic collector affixed in the upper back of the participants. A urine sample will be taken from the urine collected at the end of the exercise period. Urine and sweat volumes along with respective urea concentrations will be used to compute protein oxidation during exercise.

Experimental: Eccentric cycling with placebo ingestion
Participants will complete 45 minutes of arm cranking at an intensity corresponding to 30% of the concentric cycling VO2max, followed by 35 minutes of ECCENTRIC cycling on a recumbent ergometer at the same VO2. A PLACEBO solution (water with a non-caloric sweetener) will be ingested 30 min prior to starting exercise and every 15 min thereafter, until the exercise is completed. Indirect respiratory calorimetry, expired gas sampling, blood sampling will occur will be performed 4 minutes before each ingestion.
Dietary Supplement: Solution ingestion
Two ingestion modalities will be attributed (participant is blinded) in random order: a placebo and a glucose solution. The placebo contains water and a non-caloric sweetener (stevia) in order to reproduce the taste of the glucose solution. The glucose solution contains 6% glucose per volume, labelled with 13C. Both solutions will be administered in 8 doses: a bolus (333 mL) at rest, 30 minutes before the start of exercise, 167 mL immediately before exercise, 167 mL every 15 minutes during arm cranking, 125 mL immediately before concentric or eccentric pedalling and at 15 and 25 minutes of this last exercise period. In total, 1250 mL of solution will be administered during the experimental protocol.

Behavioral: Constant load arm cranking
The participants will perform 45 minutes of arm cranking on a specialized ergometer at a power output corresponding to 30% of their concentric cycling VO2max, previously measured.

Procedure: Expired gas sampling
Subjects will be asked, twice, to provide a forced expiration into a 10 mL plastic tube in order to collect a sample expired gases. This procedure will be done immediately before blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Indirect respiratory calorimetry
A mouthpiece and nose plug will be placed on the subject and expired gases will be analyzed by a metabolic cart during 3 minutes. This procedure will be done immediately before expired gas collection, blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Blood sampling
A catheter will be inserted in an antecubital vein and a saline solution will be continuously perfused to maintain vein open. 10 mL of blood will be collected immediately before ingesting the solution for a total of 80 mL.

Behavioral: Measure of maximal voluntary contraction force production
Maximal voluntary bilateral knee extensions (3 trials of 3-4 seconds each) will be performed on a chair equipped with force sensors to measure peak force production. These measurements will be done before the first ingestion, immediately before exercise, during the transition between arm cranking and concentric or eccentric cycling, and at the end of the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of muscle electrical activity (EMG)
Surface electrodes will be placed on the biceps and quadriceps to measure EMG throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of central and cutaneous temperatures
Wireless sensors will be placed on the skin of the arm, chest, back, abdomen, thigh and calf using adhesive tape. A wireless thermometric pill will be ingested the morning of the experiment. These will allow the measurement of skin and central temperatures throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of perceived exertion, pain perception and affective response
100 points scales (CR100) will be used to measure perceived exertion and pain perception immediately before ingesting the gas sampling. At the same time, affective responses will be assessed using the "Feeling scale".

Procedure: Measure of sweat and urine production
Sweat production and sampling will be performed by measuring body weight before and after exercise, after voiding the bladder. Mass loss through the urine and gases will be accounted for in order to compute sweat production. A sweat sample will be collected using a cotton gauze placed into a plastic collector affixed in the upper back of the participants. A urine sample will be taken from the urine collected at the end of the exercise period. Urine and sweat volumes along with respective urea concentrations will be used to compute protein oxidation during exercise.

Experimental: Eccentric cycling with glucose ingestion
Participants will complete 45 minutes of arm cranking at an intensity corresponding to 30% of the concentric cycling VO2max, followed by 35 minutes of ECCENTRIC cycling on a recumbent ergometer at the same VO2. A GLUCOSE solution (glucose with a trace amount of 13C) will be ingested 30 min prior to starting exercise and every 15 min thereafter, until the exercise is completed. Indirect respiratory calorimetry, expired gas sampling, blood sampling will occur will be performed 4 minutes before each ingestion.
Dietary Supplement: Solution ingestion
Two ingestion modalities will be attributed (participant is blinded) in random order: a placebo and a glucose solution. The placebo contains water and a non-caloric sweetener (stevia) in order to reproduce the taste of the glucose solution. The glucose solution contains 6% glucose per volume, labelled with 13C. Both solutions will be administered in 8 doses: a bolus (333 mL) at rest, 30 minutes before the start of exercise, 167 mL immediately before exercise, 167 mL every 15 minutes during arm cranking, 125 mL immediately before concentric or eccentric pedalling and at 15 and 25 minutes of this last exercise period. In total, 1250 mL of solution will be administered during the experimental protocol.

Behavioral: Constant load arm cranking
The participants will perform 45 minutes of arm cranking on a specialized ergometer at a power output corresponding to 30% of their concentric cycling VO2max, previously measured.

Procedure: Expired gas sampling
Subjects will be asked, twice, to provide a forced expiration into a 10 mL plastic tube in order to collect a sample expired gases. This procedure will be done immediately before blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Indirect respiratory calorimetry
A mouthpiece and nose plug will be placed on the subject and expired gases will be analyzed by a metabolic cart during 3 minutes. This procedure will be done immediately before expired gas collection, blood sampling and ingestion of the solution.

Procedure: Blood sampling
A catheter will be inserted in an antecubital vein and a saline solution will be continuously perfused to maintain vein open. 10 mL of blood will be collected immediately before ingesting the solution for a total of 80 mL.

Behavioral: Measure of maximal voluntary contraction force production
Maximal voluntary bilateral knee extensions (3 trials of 3-4 seconds each) will be performed on a chair equipped with force sensors to measure peak force production. These measurements will be done before the first ingestion, immediately before exercise, during the transition between arm cranking and concentric or eccentric cycling, and at the end of the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of muscle electrical activity (EMG)
Surface electrodes will be placed on the biceps and quadriceps to measure EMG throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of central and cutaneous temperatures
Wireless sensors will be placed on the skin of the arm, chest, back, abdomen, thigh and calf using adhesive tape. A wireless thermometric pill will be ingested the morning of the experiment. These will allow the measurement of skin and central temperatures throughout the exercise protocol.

Diagnostic Test: Measure of perceived exertion, pain perception and affective response
100 points scales (CR100) will be used to measure perceived exertion and pain perception immediately before ingesting the gas sampling. At the same time, affective responses will be assessed using the "Feeling scale".

Procedure: Measure of sweat and urine production
Sweat production and sampling will be performed by measuring body weight before and after exercise, after voiding the bladder. Mass loss through the urine and gases will be accounted for in order to compute sweat production. A sweat sample will be collected using a cotton gauze placed into a plastic collector affixed in the upper back of the participants. A urine sample will be taken from the urine collected at the end of the exercise period. Urine and sweat volumes along with respective urea concentrations will be used to compute protein oxidation during exercise.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Exogenous glucose oxidation [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Measured by indirect respiratory calorimetry combined with tracer techniques.

  2. Maximal voluntary force production [ Time Frame: Change between baseline and end of exercise ]
    Measured using isometric bilateral knee extensions

  3. Central and skin temperature [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Measured using a thermometric pill and skin-surface electrodes

  4. Perceived exertion [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Measured using a Category Ratio scale on 100 points (CR100), 0 signifies no exertion and 100 being maximal effort.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Blood insulin concentration [ Time Frame: For 0 minutes corresponds to the beginning of exercise, at -31, -1, 14, 29, 44, 49, 59 and 69 minutes ]
    Blood is sampled using a venous catheter over about 60 seconds. Following centrifugation to extract the plasma, a small sample is used to measure insulin concentration.

  2. Blood glucose concentration [ Time Frame: For 0 minutes corresponds to the beginning of exercise, at -31, -1, 14, 29, 44, 49, 59 and 69 minutes ]
    Blood is sampled using a venous catheter over about 60 seconds. Following centrifugation to extract the plasma, a small sample is used to measure glucose concentration.

  3. Blood free-fatty acid concentration [ Time Frame: For 0 minutes corresponds to the beginning of exercise, at -31, -1, 14, 29, 44, 49, 59 and 69 minutes ]
    Blood is sampled using a venous catheter over about 60 seconds. Following centrifugation to extract the plasma, a small sample is used to measure free-fatty acid concentration.

  4. Blood lactate concentration [ Time Frame: For 0 minutes corresponds to the beginning of exercise, at -31, -1, 14, 29, 44, 49, 59 and 69 minutes ]
    Blood is sampled using a venous catheter over about 60 seconds. Following centrifugation to extract the plasma, a small sample is used to measure lactate concentration.

  5. Total carbohydrate, fat and protein oxidation [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Measured by indirect respiratory calorimetry corrected for urea excretion in sweat and urine

  6. Pain perception: VAS [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Visual analogue pain scale of 25 cm, relative distance converted to score on 100 points. Higher values correspond to greater pain sensation.

  7. Affective response [ Time Frame: Average over the 35 minutes of eccentric or concentric exercise ]
    Feeling scale, ranging from -5 to +5, reporting the mood (Hardy & Rejeski, 1989). -5 corresponds to very bad and +5 to very good.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Low alcohol consumption (<3 drinks/week)
  • Non-smokers
  • Not regularly taking medication for a known pathology
  • Regularly practices endurance sports (cycling, running, etc.)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Intolerant to glucose (according to WHO standards)
  • Musculoskeletal injury or illness affecting exercise performance
  • Failure to respect protocol guidelines (diet, exercise prior to experimentation, etc.)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03995693


Contacts
Layout table for location contacts
Contact: Jonathan Tremblay, PhD 514-343-2038 jonathan.tremblay@umontreal.ca
Contact: Benjamin Pageaux, PhD 514 343-6111 ext 55517 benjamin.pageaux@umontreal.ca

Locations
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Canada, Quebec
Centre d'éducation physique et sportive de l'Université de Montréal (CEPSUM) Recruiting
Montréal, Quebec, Canada, H3C 3J7
Contact: Jonathan Tremblay, Ph.D.    514-343-2038    jonathan.tremblay@umontreal.ca   
Contact: Benjamin Pageaux, Ph.D.    514-343-6111 ext 55517    benjamin.pageaux@umontreal.ca   
Principal Investigator: Jonathan Tremblay, Ph.D.         
Sub-Investigator: Benjamin Pageaux, Ph.D.         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Université de Montréal
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Jonathan Tremblay, PhD Université de Montréal
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Responsible Party: Jonathan Tremblay, Associate Professor, Université de Montréal
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03995693    
Other Study ID Numbers: eccentric-exogenous
First Posted: June 24, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 26, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Jonathan Tremblay, Université de Montréal:
eccentric exercise
13C-glucose
exercise mode