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Eltrombopag vs Standard Front Line Management for Newly Diagnosed Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) in Children

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03939637
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : May 7, 2019
Last Update Posted : September 30, 2021
Boston Children's Hospital
University of California, San Francisco
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jenny Despotovic, Baylor College of Medicine

Brief Summary:
This is an investigator initiated, multicenter, open label, randomized phase 3 study for subjects with newly diagnosed ITP from ages 1 to less than 18 years old.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Immune Thrombocytopenia Drug: Eltrombopag Drug: Steroids Drug: IVIG Drug: Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 3

Detailed Description:

This is a prospective, open label, randomized, two-arm, multi-center Phase 3 trial.

Patients with newly diagnosed ITP are randomized 2:1 to receive the experimental treatment, eltrombopag, or investigator's choice of 3 standard therapies. The primary objective is to determine if the proportion of patients with platelet response is significantly greater in patients treated with eltrombopag compared to those treated with standard therapies.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 162 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Study of Eltrombopag vs Standard Front Line Management for Newly Diagnosed Immune Thrombocytopenia in Children
Actual Study Start Date : May 2, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 1, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : November 30, 2024

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Eltrombopag
Patients randomized to eltrombopag will be treated for 12 weeks, with the possibility to continue therapy for up to 1 year depending on response.
Drug: Eltrombopag

Starting dose for eltrombopag will be based on manufacturer recommendations, and drug will be titrated to effect per guidelines.

  • Children 1 to 5 years: Initial: 25 mg once daily
  • Children ≥6 years and Adolescents: Initial: 50 mg once daily (25 mg once daily for patients of East-Asian ethnicity [e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Taiwanese])

Dose should be titrated based on platelet response. Maximum dose: 75 mg once daily.

Active Comparator: Standard first-line therapy

Subjects randomized to the standard therapy arm will receive one of three treatments at the discretion of the treating physician. Patients who previously failed standard management prior to study entry must be treated with a different agent than their original failed agent. e.g. Patient who failed steroids could receive either IVIg or anti-D if randomized to the standard treatment arm.

Standard therapy will be administered as commercially available drug.

Investigator may choose amongst the following:

  • IVIg: IVIG 1 g/kg x1 (no steroids for pre-medication or adjunctive therapy)
  • Steroids: Prednisone/Prednisolone 4 mg/kg/day (Max 120 mg/day) x 4 days
  • Rho(D) Immune Globulin: Anti-D globulin 75 mcg/kg x1 (no steroids for pre-medication or adjunctive therapy)
Drug: Steroids
Prednisone/Prednisolone 4mg/kg/day (Max 120 mg/day) x 4 day

Drug: IVIG
IVIG 1 g/kg x1 (no steroids for pre-medication or adjunctive therapy)

Drug: Rho(D) Immune Globulin
Anti-D globulin 75 mcg/kg x1 (no steroids for pre-medication or adjunctive therapy)

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Proportion of patients with a platelet response [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    To determine if the proportion of patients with a platelet response is significantly greater in patients with newly diagnosed ITP treated with eltrombopag than those treated with standard first-line treatments

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Bleeding Score [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Poor bleeding score (binary) at 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year after study enrollment defined as World Health Organization (WHO) Bleeding Scale ≥ 2 or Modified Buchanan Scale ≥ 3

  2. Number of rescue therapies [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Cumulative number of rescue therapies required during the first 12 weeks of treatment

  3. Platelet response [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Platelet response (binary), defined as ≥ 6 of 8 weeks with platelets >50 x10^9/L during weeks 5-12 of therapy, but patient required a rescue treatment during weeks 1-2 of study

  4. Need for treatment [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    No further need for treatment (binary) after 12 weeks or 6 months of study

  5. Treatment response [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

    Treatment response (binary endpoints) at 1 year defined as:

    • CR is defined as platelet count >/= 150 x 10^9/L
    • Primary Remission at 1 year is defined as CR at 1 year with no second-line agents required and >/= 3 months after discontinuing most recent platelet active medication
    • Disease resolution at 1 year is defined as complete response (CR) at 1 year >/= 3 months after discontinuing most recent platelet active medication. May have received a second-line therapy, excluding rituximab or splenectomy.
    • Disease stability at 1 year is defined as platelets >/= 50 x 10^9/L but <150 x 10^9/L >/= 3 months after discontinuing most recent platelet active medication.

  6. Number of 2nd line therapies [ Time Frame: 52 weeks ]
    Number of 2nd-line therapies in weeks 13-52

  7. Regulatory T-Cells [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Absolute change in percentage of CD4+25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells from baseline at 12 weeks and 1 year

  8. KIT Scores [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Change in parent proxy-reported Kids ITP tool (KIT) overall scores from baseline at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year after study enrollment

  9. Hockenberry Fatigue Scale-Parent [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Total scale intensity ratings (continuous) from the Hockenberry Fatigue Scale-Parent (FS-P) at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year

  10. Blood Iron values [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and hemoglobin at 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after study enrollment

  11. Safety evaluations [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

    Safety evaluations as defined by:

    • Abnormal liver function tests (LFTs):

    ALT ≥ 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN) in patients with normal baseline ALT ≥ 3 x baseline or ≥ 5 x ULN (whichever is lower) in patients with abnormal baseline ALT ≥ 3 x ULN AND bilirubin ≥ 1.5 x ULN (>35% direct)

    • Incidence of adverse events
    • Incidence of serious adverse events

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Time to response [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Time to response (platelets >30x10^9/L, and at least 2-fold increase in the baseline count and absence of bleeding) (IWG definition)

  2. Platelet-specific endpoints [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Treatment response (platelets >30x10^9/L, and at least 2-fold increase in the baseline count and absence of bleeding) (IWG definition) at 12 weeks

  3. Time to platelet count [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Time to platelet count >100x10^9/L and absence of bleeding (IWG definition)

  4. Treatment response [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Treatment response (platelet count >100x10^9/L and absence of bleeding) (IWG definition) at 12 weeks

  5. Loss of treatment response [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Loss of treatment response (platelet count below 30x10^9/L, or less than 2-fold increase in the baseline count or bleeding) (IWG definition) at any time during the study period after achieving response during the first 12 weeks

  6. Extreme thrombocytosis [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Extreme thrombocytosis (platelets >1 x10^12/L)

  7. Patient-reported outcomes endpoints [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Change in child self-reported and parent impact KIT scores from baseline at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year after study enrollment

  8. Change in Hockenberry fatigue [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Change in Hockenberry fatigue (FS-C, FS-A, FS-P) scores from baseline at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year after study enrollment

  9. Global Change Scale scores [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Global Change Scale scores at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 year after study enrollment

  10. Number of Hospitalizations [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Number of hospitalizations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   1 Year to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age: 1- <18 years
  • Newly diagnosed ITP (<3 months from diagnosis (first abnormal platelet count), per international working group definition17)
  • Platelets <30 x 10^9/L at screening
  • Requires pharmacologic treatment from the perspective of the treating clinician.

Need to treat is at the discretion of the investigator, but there should be clinical equipoise about the use of eltrombopag vs standard treatment options (patients should not, in the opinion of the investigator, require concomitant therapy at time of enrollment).

  • Treatment options include one of three standard therapies, (IVIg, steroids, or Anti-D). For example, if patient has previously shown no response to IVIg or steroids and is Rh-negative, patient would not be eligible for study.
  • Patient population includes both:

    1. Upfront treatment: Patient within 10 days of ITP diagnosis who has not received previous treatment OR
    2. Treatment failure: Patients who have failed standard management (observation or treatment with one or more first-line agents)

      • Failure of observation: no platelet recovery (>30 x 10^9/L) with observation >10 days from diagnosis, with need to treat
      • Poor response to first-line agent (platelets remain <30 x10^9/L)
      • Initial response to first-line agent, but response wanes and platelets fall below 30 x10^9/L

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Severe bleeding: Buchanan Overall Grade 4 or 5 bleeding, or severe bleeding requiring emergent treatment at the discretion of the provider. (e.g., intracranial hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, bleeding with ongoing need for pRBC transfusion)
  • Prior treatment with TPO-RA (eltrombopag or romiplostim)
  • Known secondary ITP (due to lupus, CVID, ALPS)
  • Known HIV (or history of HIV positivity) or Hepatitis C (screening not required if no clinical suspicion)
  • Evans Syndrome: positive direct Coombs with evidence of active hemolysis (elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or reticulocyte count not attributable to recent treatment or bleeding)
  • Any Malignancy
  • History of stem cell transplant or solid organ transplant
  • aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or ALT >2 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Total bilirubin >1.5 × ULN
  • Subjects with liver cirrhosis (as determined by the investigator)
  • Creatinine >2.5 × ULN
  • Known active or uncontrolled infections not responding to appropriate therapy
  • On anticoagulation or anti-platelet agents
  • Known thrombophilic risk factors. Exception: Subjects for whom the potential benefits of participating in the study outweigh the potential risks of thromboembolic events, as determined by the investigator.
  • Baseline ophthalmic problems that may potentiate cataract development
  • Impaired cardiac function, such as:

    • Known prolonged QTc, with corrected QTc >450 msec
    • Other clinically significant cardio-vascular disease (e.g., uncontrolled hypertension, history of labile hypertension),
    • History of known structural abnormalities (e.g. cardiomyopathy).
  • History or current diagnosis of cardiac disease indicating significant risk of safety for patients participating in the study such as uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease, including any of the following:

    • Recent myocardial infarction (within last 6 months),
    • Uncontrolled congestive heart failure,
    • Unstable angina (within last 6 months),
    • Clinically significant (symptomatic) cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., sustained ventricular tachycardia, and clinically significant second or third degree AV block without a pacemaker.)
    • Long QT syndrome, family history of idiopathic sudden death, congenital long QT syndrome or additional risk factors for cardiac repolarization abnormality, as determined by the investigator.
  • Known immediate or delayed hypersensitivity reaction to eltrombopag or its excipient.
  • Pregnant, breastfeeding, or unwilling to practice birth control during participation in the study. Women of childbearing potential (have achieved menarche) must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test and agree to use basic methods of contraception (if sexually active) or maintain abstinence for the duration of the study. Basic contraception methods include:

    • Total abstinence (when this is in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the subject. Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception
    • Female sterilization (have had surgical bilateral oophorectomy with or without hysterectomy), total hysterectomy, or tubal ligation at least six weeks before taking study treatment. In case of oophorectomy alone, only when the reproductive status of the woman has been confirmed by follow up hormone level assessment
    • Male sterilization (at least 6 months prior to screening). The vasectomized male partner should be the sole partner for that subject
    • Barrier methods of contraception: Condom or Occlusive cap. For the UK: with spermicidal foam/gel/film/cream/ vaginal suppository
    • Use of oral, injected or implanted hormonal methods of contraception or placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) or intrauterine system (IUS), or other forms of hormonal contraception that have comparable efficacy (failure rate <1%), for example hormone vaginal ring or transdermal hormone contraception. In case of use of oral contraception women should have been stable on the same pill for a minimum of 3 months before taking study treatment.
  • Male patients who are sexually active and do not agree to abstinence or to use a condom during intercourse while taking eltrombopag, and for 7 days after stopping treatment.
  • History of alcohol/drug abuse
  • Presence of a medical condition that in the opinion of the Investigator would compromise the safety of the patient or the quality of the data.
  • Concurrent participation in an investigational study within 30 days prior to enrollment or within 5-half-lives of the investigational product, whichever is longer. Note: parallel enrollment in a non-therapeutic trial such as disease registry or biology study is permitted.

Other Eligibility Criteria Considerations All patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent (and assent when applicable)

  • Patients and/or parents who are unable to read English at a grade 2 level will be excluded from the patient-reported outcome component of the study. They will not be excluded from all other aspects of the study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03939637

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Contact: Jenny Despotovic, DO 832-822-4302

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United States, Arizona
Phoenix CHildren's Hospital Recruiting
Phoenix, Arizona, United States, 85016
Contact: Joanna Gendreau, MD    602-933-0920   
Contact: Erica Olson    602-933-0170   
United States, Arkansas
Arkansas Children's Hospital Recruiting
Little Rock, Arkansas, United States, 72202
Contact: Shelley Crary, MD    501-364-4194   
Contact: Catherine Redinger    501-364-4290   
Principal Investigator: Shelley Crary, MD         
United States, California
UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Recruiting
San Francisco, California, United States, 94158
Contact: Kristin Shimano, MD    415-476-4901   
Contact: Victoria Vanderpoel    415-514-1489   
Principal Investigator: Kristin Shimano, MD         
United States, Florida
University of Florida College of Medicine Recruiting
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32610
Contact: Vandy Black, MD    352-273-9120   
Contact: Jessica Cline    352-294-8846   
Principal Investigator: Vandy Black, MD         
United States, Illinois
Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago Recruiting
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
Contact: Alexis Thompson, MD    312-227-4834   
Contact: Zeinab Alward    312-227-4807   
Principal Investigator: Alexis Thompson, MD         
United States, Indiana
Riley Hospital for Children-Indiana University Recruiting
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
Contact: Kerry Hege, MD    317-944-9684   
Contact: Shannon Maraldo    317-948-3395   
Principal Investigator: Kerry Hege, MD         
United States, Massachusetts
Boston Children's Hospital Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Contact: Rachael Grace, MD    617-355-8246   
Contact: Kathryn Addonizio    617-355-8733   
Principal Investigator: Rachael Grace, MD         
United States, New York
Columbia University Irving Medical Center Recruiting
New York, New York, United States, 10032
Contact: Cindy Neunert, MD    212-305-9770   
Contact: Miriam Rosen    212-305-7213   
Principal Investigator: Cindy Neunert, MD         
Weill Cornell Medical College Recruiting
New York, New York, United States, 10065
Contact: Shipra Kaiker    212-746-3400   
Contact: Johnson Lin    212-746-4933   
Principal Investigator: Shipra Kaiker, MD         
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center Recruiting
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Contact: Jennifer Rothman, MD    919-684-3401   
Contact: Hai Huang    919-613-4676   
Principal Investigator: Jennifer Rothman, MD         
United States, Ohio
Nationwide Children's Hospital Recruiting
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205
Contact: Melissa Rose, MD    614-722-3551   
Contact: Jessica Lischak    614-355-1201   
Principal Investigator: Meilssa Rose, MD         
United States, Pennsylvania
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Recruiting
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Contact: Michele Lambert, MD    215-590-4667   
Contact: Abinaya Arulselvan    215-590-3582   
Principal Investigator: Michele Lambert, MD         
United States, Texas
Texas Children's Hospital Recruiting
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Contact: Jenny Despotovic, DO    832-822-4302   
Contact: Bogdan Dinu    832-824-4825   
Principal Investigator: Jenny Despotovic, DO         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Baylor College of Medicine
Boston Children's Hospital
University of California, San Francisco
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Principal Investigator: Jenny Despotovic, DO Baylor College of Medicine - Texas Children's Hospital
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Jenny Despotovic, Associate Professor, Baylor College of Medicine Identifier: NCT03939637    
Other Study ID Numbers: H-42131 ICON 3
CETB115JUS33T ( Other Identifier: Novartis )
ICON 3 ( Other Identifier: ICON Consortium )
First Posted: May 7, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 30, 2021
Last Verified: September 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Jenny Despotovic, Baylor College of Medicine:
Immune Thrombocytopenia
Newly Diagnosed Immune Thrombocytopenia
Newly Diagnosed ITP
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Immune System Diseases
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
Blood Platelet Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Thrombotic Microangiopathies
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Autoimmune Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Skin Manifestations
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
Rho(D) Immune Globulin
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs