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Effect of Energy Drink on Sport Performance and Psycho-Physiological Responses.

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03936712
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 3, 2019
Last Update Posted : May 3, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ammar Achraf, The Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax

Brief Summary:
This work aimed to examine the effects of drinking an "energy drink" upon (i) short-term maximal performance, (ii) reaction times and (iii) psychological factors (i.e., mood state, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affective load) and on physiological parameters such as blood pressure, blood glucose, hematological parameters and other biochemical parameters.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Physical Activity Dietary Supplement: Energy Drink Dietary Supplement: Placebo Drink Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 22 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Intervention Model Description: A double blind, placebo-controlled, and counterbalanced crossover design was used for this work
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description: To avoid identification, two opaque and unmarked cans [24-26] of Red Bull or Placebo were ingested by each participant (i.e., 500 mL) in the presence of a researcher.
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
Official Title: Effects of Energy Drink on Performance and Psycho-Physiological Response to Physical Exercise
Actual Study Start Date : January 1, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 12, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : January 12, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Health Checkup

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Red Bull drink (RB)
Over the study, three participants were unable to complete all test sessions due to muscle pain or injury . Thus, 19 participants (age: 21.2±1.2 years; height: 1.76±0.8 m; body-mass: 76.6±12.6 kg) completed all test sessions
Dietary Supplement: Energy Drink
Each participant visited the laboratory for two formal test sessions, drinking a caffeine-containing ED (RB) and a caffeine and taurine free beverage drink (PL). All sessions were arranged in the early evening hours to avoid any time of day effects. The two definitive test sessions were separated by an interval of seven days to allow sufficient recovery between tests and to ensure caffeine washout. To avoid identification, two opaque and unmarked cans of RB or PL were ingested by each participant (i.e., 500 mL) in the presence of a researcher. The two drinks were similar in volume, texture, and appearance. One can of RB drink (i.e., 250ml) contained 80 mg of caffeine, 1 g of taurine, 27 g of carbohydrates, 0.6 g of protein, 5 mg vitamin B6 and 487 kJ of energy.

Placebo Comparator: Placebo drink
19 participants (age: 21.2±1.2 years; height: 1.76±0.8 m; body-mass: 76.6±12.6 kg)
Dietary Supplement: Placebo Drink
The PL drink was prepared by an agri-food engineer; it did not contain any caffeine or taurine, but comprised carbonated water, carbohydrates, citric acid lemon juice reconstituted from concentrate (1 %), supplemented by flavorings, of sodium citrate, acesulfame K, sucralose, potassium sorbate and RB (a flavoring that contains propylene glycol E1520 (0.23 mL).




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Wingate-test physical performance from PL to RB condition [ Time Frame: The performance in Wingate test was measured 1 hour following the consumption of supplementations in the first and second test sessions (RB session and PLA session) to assess possible beneficial effect of RB supplementation in physical performance ]

    A calibrated mechanically-braked cycle ergometer (Monark 894; Stockholm, Sweden) interfaced with a microcomputer was utilized for the 30-s Wingate test. Subjects pedaled as fast as possible for 30-s against a constant load calculated according to the participant's body-mass (i.e., 8.7%). After maintaining a constant ~60rpm speed for 4-6-s against minimal resistance, the selected load was applied. The participant sat on the cycle throughout and was strongly encouraged to maximize pedaling rates and to maintain a high speed. Peak and mean power (i.e., average of power output the 30-s) were recorded. The fatigue index was calculated as follows:

    Fatigue index (%) = [(peak power-minimal power)/ peak power×100]. The ICC and SEM showed excellent reliability for peak power (ICC>0.98, absolute SEM <0.21), mean power (ICC>0.98, absolute SEM <0.23) and fatigue index (ICC>0.76, absolute SEM <1.99).


  2. Change in Reaction Time Performance from PL to RB condition [ Time Frame: The reaction time performance was measured 1 hour following the consumption of supplementations in the first and second test sessions (RB session and PLA session) to assess possible beneficial effect of RB in reaction time performance ]
    A simple visual reaction time test assessed alertness and motor reaction-speed. Subjects responded as quickly as possible to presentation of a stimulus (the image of a black box) on a computer screen (15" LCD). When this appears, the participant should press the index finger on a computer key. The signal appeared in random order within 1-10-s time intervals. Each participant was allowed ten attempts and the mean reaction time was calculated, using React! V0.9 software.The ICC and SEM showed excellent reliability for reaction time (ICC>0.89, absolute SEM <0.14) measurement.

  3. Change in Strength Physical Performance (i.e., Handgrip) from PL to RB condition [ Time Frame: Handgrip performance was measured 1 hour following the consumption of supplementations in the first and second test sessions (RB session and PLA session) to assess possible beneficial effect of RB supplementation in strength (i.e., Handgrip) performance ]
    Handgrip strength was recorded by dynamometer (T.K.K. 5401; Takei, Tokyo, Japan). The maximal handgrip force was determined for the dominant hand. Participants exerted their maximal strength for 4-5-s. With the hand hanging downwards, the dynamometer was

  4. Change in Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Affective Load from PL to RB condition [ Time Frame: RPE and Affective Load were measured immediately following the first and second training sessions (RB and PL sessions) to assess any beneficial effect of the consumed RB (1 hour before session) on fatigue and load perception ]
    The original Borg RPE scale rates exertion subjectively during or after physical exercise on a 15-point scale ranging from six (very very light) to twenty (very very hard). It was used to calculate the affective load; the affective load was obtained as the difference between the perceived exertion (negative affective response) and pleasure scores (positive affective response). For example, with an RPE score of six, the negative affective response is zero and the positive affective response is -14. However, if the RPE score rises to 20, the negative affective response is +14 and the positive affective response is zero. The potential affective load thus ranges from -14 to +14. A negative affective load score indicates the dominance of pleasant affective responses and a positive affective load represents the dominance of unpleasant affective responses.

  5. Change in Mood States (POMS) from PL to RB condition [ Time Frame: POMS was measured immediately following the first and second training sessions (RB and PL sessions) to assess any beneficial effect of the consumed RB (1hour before session) on perception of tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion ]
    The evaluation of mood states used the French language version of the POMS questionnaire. Responses to 65 adjectives (ranging from "Zero" (i.e., not at all) to "Four" (i.e., extremely) assessed immediate mood states in seven dimensions: tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion and interpersonal relationships.

  6. Change in Blood pressure and blood glucose from pre- to post-training session using RB condition [ Time Frame: Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured 1 hour after RB supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on blood pressure/glucose responses during RB condition ]
    Blood glucose was measured using the electrochemical sensor Rightest GM260 Blood Glucose Monitoring System (Bionime Corporation, Taichung City, Taiwan). The finger tip was pricked with a lancing device, and a specific test strip was soaked with blood was inserted into the measuring apparatus, with an estimate appearing within 5 seconds. Blood pressure was measured by the same physician using a stethoscope (Spengler, Germany) and sphygmomanometer (Spengler, Germany).

  7. Change in Blood pressure and blood glucose from pre- to post-training session using PL condition [ Time Frame: Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured 1 hour after PL supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on blood pressure/glucose responses during PL condition ]
    Blood glucose was measured using the electrochemical sensor Rightest GM260 Blood Glucose Monitoring System (Bionime Corporation, Taichung City, Taiwan). The finger tip was pricked with a lancing device, and a specific test strip was soaked with blood was inserted into the measuring apparatus, with an estimate appearing within 5 seconds. Blood pressure was measured by the same physician using a stethoscope (Spengler, Germany) and sphygmomanometer (Spengler, Germany).

  8. Change in hematological parameters from pre- to post-training session using RB condition [ Time Frame: Hematological parameters were measured 1 hour after RB supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on hematological responses during RB condition ]
    Haematological parameters (i.e., white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEU), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT)and platelets (PLT) were determined using a multichannel automated blood cell analyser Beckman Coulter Gen system-2 (Coulter T540)

  9. Change in hematological parameters from pre to post training session using PL condition [ Time Frame: Hematological parameters were measured 1 hour after PL supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on hematological responses during PL condition ]
    Haematological parameters (i.e., white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEU), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT)and platelets (PLT) were determined using a multichannel automated blood cell analyser Beckman Coulter Gen system-2 (Coulter T540)

  10. Change in muscle damage parameters from pre to post training session using RB condition [ Time Frame: Muscle damage parameters were measured 1 hour after RB supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on muscle damage responses during RB condition ]
    muscle damage markers: Creatinine kinase (CK), Alkaline phosphate (PAL), Gammaglutamyl (GGT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were determined spectrophotometrically using Abott Architect Ci 4100.

  11. Change in muscle damage parameters from pre to post training session using PL condition [ Time Frame: Muscle damage parameters were measured 1 hour after PL supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on muscle damage responses during PL condition ]
    muscle damage markers: Creatinine kinase (CK), Alkaline phosphate (PAL), Gammaglutamyl (GGT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were determined spectrophotometrically using Abott Architect Ci 4100.

  12. Change in oxidative stress parameters from pre to post training session using RB condition [ Time Frame: Oxidative stress parameters were measured 1 hour after RB supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on oxidative stress responses during RB condition ]
    Oxididative stress response (i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), uric acid (UA)) and c-reactive protein (CRP)) were determined spectrophotometrically using Abott Architect Ci 4100.

  13. Change in oxidative stress parameters from pre to post training session using PL condition [ Time Frame: Oxidative stress parameters were measured 1 hour after PL supplementation (correspond to pre-training session) and also immediately following the training session to assess any exercise effect on oxidative stress responses during PL condition ]
    Oxididative stress response (i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), uric acid (UA)) and c-reactive protein (CRP)) were determined spectrophotometrically using Abott Architect Ci 4100.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 18-40 years of age,
  • BMI less than 25 kg/m2,
  • low (<1.5g/month [20]) caffeine users
  • not regular caffeine users.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • chronic metabolic disease such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
  • auto-immune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or type 1 diabetes,
  • liver disease
  • intake of any medications/ or dietary supplements known to influence blood glucose and/or blood pressures.
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Responsible Party: Ammar Achraf, Principal Investigator, The Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03936712    
Other Study ID Numbers: Hamdi Chtourou
First Posted: May 3, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 3, 2019
Last Verified: May 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Ammar Achraf, The Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax:
Energy drinks
Exercise
Physiological response
Mood State
Fatigue