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Smoking Dependence and Periodontitis

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03901066
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 3, 2019
Last Update Posted : April 3, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Leila Salhi, University of Liege

Brief Summary:
The present study was designed as a, single-center, prospective cohort study focusing on the relationship between smoking status and the severity of periodontitis

Condition or disease
Smoking Periodontitis

Detailed Description:

The present study was designed as a, single-center, prospective cohort study focusing on the relationship between smoking status and the severity of periodontitis.

The research question was " How the Fagerström for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the number of cigarette cunsuption (NNC) are correlated to the severity of chronic periodontitis"? Thirty-four consecutive smoker patients presenting a chronic periodontitis were included in the study, and the smoking status was defined both by NCC and FTND.

Periodontal clinical parameters were correlated with NCC and FTND.

All the clinical periodontal parameters were recorded by a single periodontist (L.S). Periodontal assessments included: probing depth (PD), gingival recession (RD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque score index (PI), Furcation (Furc), tooth mobility and the percentage of sites of PD ≥ 6mm. A graduated manual periodontal probe was used to take measurements at the 6 sites of each tooth. BOP (%) and plaque score (%).

All the participants of the study respected the following inclusion criteria: 1/ smoker patients aged of minimum 18 years old, 2/ chronic periodontitis, 3/ presence of a minimum of 6 teeth at each arch, 4/ a minimum of 6 teeth with pocket depth of 5 mm, 5/ signed the informed consent. The exclusion criteria were: 1/ aggressive periodontitis, 2/ diabetes, 3/ connective tissue disease, 4/ pregnancy, 5/ radio-therapy, 6/ chemotherapy, 7/ psychological disease, 8/ previous periodontal therapy.

The patient smoking status was defined by FTND and NCC FTND scores were categorized in 3 groups

  • scores < 4 for low nicotine dependence,
  • scores = 4-5 for moderate nicotine dependence
  • scores > 5 for high nicotine dependence.

The NCC s was classified in three levels of smokers as described in most of the periodontal studies:

  • Number of cigarette smoking ≤ 10 per day for low consumption
  • Number of cigarette smoking from 10 to 20 per day for moderate consumption
  • Number of cigarette smoking > 20 per day for high cigarette consumption

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Study Type : Observational [Patient Registry]
Actual Enrollment : 34 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Target Follow-Up Duration: 1 Day
Official Title: Smoking Dependence (Fagerström) as a Relevant Indicator for Tobacco Related Studies in Periodontology.
Actual Study Start Date : September 3, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Smoking

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. effect of nicotine dependence level on periodontal outcomes [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
    effect of nicotine dependence score on pocket depth (PD)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
34 consecutive smoker patients presenting periodontitis were included from the Department of Periodontology and Oral Surgery at the University of Liege, Belgium. All the participants of the study respected the aboveinclusion criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • smoker patients aged of minimum 18 years old
  • chronic periodontitis
  • presence of a minimum of 6 teeth at each arch
  • a minimum of 6 teeth with pocket depth of 5 mm
  • signed the informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • aggressive periodontitis
  • diabetes
  • connective tissue disease
  • pregnancy
  • radio-therapy
  • chemotherapy
  • psychological disease
  • previous periodontal therapy.
Additional Information:

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Responsible Party: Leila Salhi, periodontist, PhD student, University of Liege Identifier: NCT03901066    
Other Study ID Numbers: File number: B707201419816
First Posted: April 3, 2019    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 3, 2019
Last Verified: April 2019

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Periodontal Diseases
Mouth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases