Confirmation Bias Towards Treatments of Depressive Disorders in Social Tagging
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03899168|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 2, 2019
Last Update Posted : April 2, 2019
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent Depressive Episode Depressive Disorder, Major Depression||Other: Social Tag Popularity Other: Confidence in Prior Attitudes Other: Source Credibility||Not Applicable|
In health-related, Web-based information searches, people should select information in line with expert (vs nonexpert) information, independent of their prior attitudes and consequent confirmation bias.
This study aimed to investigate confirmation bias in mental health-related information searches, particularly (1) if high confidence worsens confirmation bias, (2) if social tags eliminate the influence of prior attitudes, and (3) if people successfully distinguish high and low source credibility.
In total, 520 participants of a representative sample of the German Web-based population were recruited via a panel company. Among them, 48.1% (250/520) participants completed the fully automated study. Participants provided prior attitudes about antidepressants and psychotherapy. The investigators manipulated (1) confidence in prior attitudes when participants searched for blog posts about the treatment of depression, (2) tag popularity —either psychotherapy or antidepressant tags were more popular, and (3) source credibility with banners indicating high or low expertise of the tagging community. The investigators measured tag and blog post selection, and treatment efficacy ratings after navigation.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||520 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Factorial Assignment|
|Masking:||Double (Participant, Investigator)|
|Primary Purpose:||Health Services Research|
|Official Title:||How Confidence in Prior Attitudes, Social Tag Popularity, and Source Credibility Shape Confirmation Bias Toward Antidepressants and Psychotherapy in a Representative German Sample: Randomized Controlled Web-Based Study|
|Actual Study Start Date :||November 14, 2014|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||November 14, 2014|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||November 14, 2014|
Experimental: Social Tag Popularity
Popularity of Social Tags (antidepressants more popular vs. psychotherapy more popular)
Other: Social Tag Popularity
The relative size of treatment tags in a tag cloud was either larger for antidepressant treatments or psychotherapy treatments.
Experimental: Confidence in Prior Attitudes
Confidence in prior attitudes (high vs. low: recalling situations in which participants were confident or uncertain about their thoughts)
Other: Confidence in Prior Attitudes
Participants thought back of situations in which they were either confident or doubtful about their own knowledge. This should elicit a mindset where participants are more or less confident about their own prior attitudes.
Experimental: Source Credibility
Credibility of the source (tagging community: experts - many years of professional experience vs. novices - students in the first semester)
Other: Source Credibility
The source credibility of the community that allegedly collected and labelled the blog posts was either high or low in terms of expertise. Either experts (high credibility) or first semester students (low credibility) did allegedly collect blog posts. This was indicated by banners on top of the navigation platform in the internet browser.
- Attitudinal Preference Score of Psychotherapy over Antidepressants [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 hour. Prior to and after information search phase in the study. ]The investigators constructed a questionnaire to measure the attitudinal preference of psychotherapy over antidepressant treatments of depressive disorders. On a 7-point likert scale, participants rate the degree of efficacy of antidepressant and psychotherapy treatments, on 8 items (e.g. item 1: "Antidepressants/Psychotherapy are/is effective in treating depression."). An index score for the degree of preference of psychotherapy is calculated by subtracting the average antidepressants score from the average psychotherapy treatment rating score for each participant. To analyse if attitudinal preferences predict the number of clicks on social tags and blog posts, the treatment preference score is entered in a logistic regression as predictor. Ratings are inquired at the beginning of the 1 hour study (prior attitudes), and at the end of the study (attitude change).
- Count of clicks on antidepressant and psychotherapy treatment tags [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 hour. During the information search phase in the study. ]Both, psychotherapy and antidepressant tags can be clicked on, and are counted respectively. An index score will be calculated for each participant subtracting the sum of clicks on antidepressants from the sum of clicks on psychotherapy, to analyse if clicks are associated with the treatment preference measured by prior treatment attitudes.
- Count of clicks on antidepressant and psychotherapy treatment blog posts [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 hour. During the information search phase in the study. ]Both, psychotherapy and antidepressant blog posts can be clicked on, and are counted respectively. An index score will be calculated for each participant subtracting the sum of clicks on antidepressants from the sum of clicks on psychotherapy, to analyse if clicks are associated with the treatment preference measured by prior treatment attitudes.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03899168
|Principal Investigator:||Stefan Schweiger||Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien|