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Knowledge Accessibility and Availability in Forming Knowledge-to-Text Inferences Among Middle Grade Readers (BVU-R15)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03782012
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : December 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : January 24, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AMY BARTH, Buena Vista University

Brief Summary:
Recent adolescent-based research shows that inference making improves across grades 6-12, uniquely accounts for variance in sentence- and passage-level comprehension, and that individual differences in inference making relate in a principled way to variations in reading comprehension for readers of all abilities (Barth et al., 2015; Barnes et al., 2015). These findings suggest that comprehension requires inference making and that comprehension fails when readers do not possess relevant knowledge (i.e., availability) or slowly retrieve (i.e., accessibility) and integrate knowledge from text or semantic memory during reading (Kendeou, 2015). To date, only one study has examined the effects of knowledge availability and accessibility on inference making among adolescents. To extend this limited body of research, this project will conduct two experimental studies designed to examine (a) the extent to which knowledge-base availability and accessibility relates to the accuracy and rate of constructing inferences using that knowledge (Aim 1) and (b) the extent to which retrieval practice (i.e., spaced practice testing) increases knowledge availability and accessibility and improves the accuracy and rate of forming inferences using that knowledge-base among middle grade readers (Aim 2). In addition, this project will integrate investigative research into an undergraduate Honors Research Program by developing an investigative laboratory component that engages undergraduates in conducting applied research (Aim 3). The research design uses 558 students in grades 5-8. To address Aim 1, mixed effects explanatory item response models will fit to the trial-by-trial reading accuracy and speed data. Repeated measures analysis of variance models will address Aim 2 with analysis of variance models used for Aim 3. The expected outcomes of the proposed research include (a) understanding how knowledge availability and accessibility relate to inference making among adolescent readers; (b) understanding the sources of inference making difficulty; and (c) methods for improving knowledge availability and accessibility and inference making to broadly implement in secondary grade classrooms.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Reading Problem Behavioral: Supported Not Applicable

  Show Detailed Description

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 300 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: This study will randomly select 300 from Storm Lake students in grades 5-8 (i.e., 75 students per grade) (see Table 1). Because of the short duration of the experiment (3 sessions), we estimate 20% attrition (n = 60 students). We will replace all students who exit from the sample within grade to ensure sufficiently power. Students will randomly be assigned within grade to one of two conditions: support versus no support.
Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: Provide information about other parties who may be masked in the clinical trial,
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Official Title: Knowledge Accessibility and Availability in Forming Knowledge to Text Inferences Among Middle Grade Readers
Actual Study Start Date : January 14, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : September 1, 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 1, 2021

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Knowledge Supported
Students will have 30 seconds to view pictures of the knowledge base items and discuss relations among items.
Behavioral: Supported
Visual organization of knowledge base items plus discourse-based discussion supporting knowledge availability and accessibility

Experimental: Knowledge Not Supported
Students will be provided 30 seconds to view pictures of the knowledge base items.
Behavioral: Supported
Visual organization of knowledge base items plus discourse-based discussion supporting knowledge availability and accessibility




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: immediately after training KNOW-IT knowledge base items; one week after training KNOW-IT knowledge base items; and 1 month after training KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Know-It task is an individually administered assessment of knowledge accessibility (rate of response) and availability (accuracy of response) for a taught knowledge base.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Direct and indirect effect of Reading Comprehension for Grade Level texts on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Gates-MacGinite Reading Test-4th Edition, a standardized, group-administered, multiple-choice assessment of reading comprehension with internal consistency for students in grades 5-8 that exceeds 0.80.

  2. Direct and Indirect effect of Reading Strategy Use for Content Area Texts on Knowledge Availability and Accessibility [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Contextualized Reading Survey, students to report study strategies used when reading. The scale measures the types of reading strategies readers use in different types of reading situations. For each question, the reader indicates their use on a scale of 1 to 5. 1 means I almost never do this. 2 means that I rarely do this. 3 means that I sometimes to this. 4 means that I usually do this. 5 means that I almost always do this. Items load onto 4 factors: evaluation and knowledge integration; pragmatic strategies; self regulation; help seeking. Higher values indicate a better outcome.

  3. Direct and Indirect effect of Word and World Knowledge and Understanding on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Kauffman Brief Intelligence Test-2, Verbal Knowledge subtest is a norm-referenced, individually administered assessment of expressive word and world knowledge. Internal consistency ranges from 0.89-0.94 for students in grades 5-8.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effect of Reading Fluency for Words on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Test of Word Reading Efficiency-2 Sight Word Efficiency, a 45-second assessment of students' word reading accuracy and speed. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grade 5-8.

  5. Direct and Indirect Effect of Text to Text Inference making on Knowledge Accessibility and Availablility [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Bridge-IT, a computerized task, asks students to read a five-sentence text, form an inference, and determine if the next provided sentence continues the story. Internal consistency for students in the middle grades ranges from 0.83-0.87.

  6. Direct and Indirect Effect of Nonverbal Reasoning on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Kauffman Brief Intelligence Test-2 Matrices subtest assess students nonverbal reasoning and ability to identify patterns and problem solve. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8.

  7. Direct and Indirect Effect of Working Memory for Words on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Word List Recall asks the student to repeat a list of monosyllabic words. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8.

  8. Direct and Indirect Effect of Reading Comprehension for Multi-paragraph Texts on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Iowa Assessment for Reading, a group administered standardized measure of reading comprehension with internal consistency for students in grades 5-8 above 0.80.

  9. Direct and Indirect Effect of Motivation to Read on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Motivation to Read survey assesses students motivations and attitudes towards reading different types of text and reading in different contexts. After each statement, students indicate whether or not it best describes their beliefs and attitudes. 1 means not at all true of me. 2 means not very true of me. 3 means somewhat true of me. 4 means mostly true of me. 5 means very much true of me. Items load on various factors: expectancy beliefs; value; achievement goals, social goals. For most items, higher values indicate better outcomes.

  10. Direct and Indirect Effect of Working Memory for Text on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days ]
    Goldman Friscoe Resonance task requires that the student listen to a series of words and determine if the words have been heard before.

  11. Direct and Indirect Effect of Working Memory for Numbers on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Woodcock Johnson III Numbers Reversed. Student listen to a series of numbers are are prompted to recall the numbers in reversed order. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grade 5-8.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effect of Reading Fluency for Nonwords on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Test of Word Reading Efficiency-2, Phonemic Decoding Efficiency, a 45-second assessment of students' non-word reading accuracy and speed. Alternate form reliability exceeds 0.90 for students in grades 5-8.

  13. Direct and Indirect Effect of Reading Fluency for Connected Text on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Curriculum Based Measure of Oral Reading Fluency, is an assessment of students ability to read connected text quickly and accurately. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8.

  14. Direct and Indirect Effect of Reading Comprehension for Information and Narrative Texts on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    A-Reading is a computer adaptive assessment of reading comprehension. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8.

  15. Direct and Indirect Effect of Text to Text and Knowledge-based Inference Making on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 45 days from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Connect-IT is a group based assessment of inference making. Students read paragraphs of various lengths and form inferences. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8.

  16. Direct and Indirect Effect of Word, World, and Domain Knowledge on Knowledge Accessibility and Availability [ Time Frame: 180 from training of KNOW-IT knowledge base items ]
    Gates MacGinitie Reading Test Vocabulary subtest measures students understanding of word, world, and domain knowledge using multiple choice questions. Reliability coefficients exceed .80 for students in grades 5-8



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Ages Eligible for Study:   10 Years to 14 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

- Must be able to hear study directions and stimuli

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Students who are enrolled in a Life Skills class focused on activities of daily living
  • Students who are enrolled in English as a Second language introductory classes
  • Students with severe disabilities that impact reading and listening.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03782012


Contacts
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Contact: AMY BARTH, PHD 17127492188 barth@bvu.edu
Contact: COURTNEY BERG 712-749-2057 BERGC@BVU.EDU

Locations
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United States, Iowa
Storm Lake Community School District Recruiting
Storm Lake, Iowa, United States, 50588
Contact: Jay Slight    712-732-8080      
Sponsors and Collaborators
Buena Vista University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: AMY E BARTH, PHD Buena Vista University

Publications:
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Responsible Party: AMY BARTH, Assistant Professor, Buena Vista University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03782012     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R15HD092922 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: December 20, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 24, 2019
Last Verified: January 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Plan Description: All data and related materials are available upon request.

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by AMY BARTH, Buena Vista University:
Reading Comprehension
Adolescents
Knowledge Availability and Accessibility
Inference Making