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Metformin Effect on Brain Function in Insulin Resistant Elderly People

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03733132
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 7, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 23, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
K. Sreekumaran Nair, Mayo Clinic

Brief Summary:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia are rapidly increasing with the aging of the population, and show a clear preponderance among people with insulin resistance. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, is being examined in clinical trials as an anti-aging drug. However, very little objective data is available regarding metformin's effect on the brain, a major organ affected by aging.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Insulin Resistance Obesity Obesity, Abdominal Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Insulin resistance is highly prevalent with advancing age. Metformin is an insulin sensitizer and is currently being extensively investigated for its potential anti-aging effect. However, only very limited information is available on metformin effect on brain, which is a major organ affected by aging. With appropriate experimental design, the investigators are attempting to understand the mechanism of metformin treatment on the physiology of the brain as well as cognitive effects. These studies may uncover relationships that could be favorably manipulated to decrease health risks associated with insulin sensitivity and the effect on the brain.

The study results may lead to a breakthrough in providing either definitive data or sufficiently strong preliminary data regarding metformin's effect on elderly people with insulin resistance, on whether the drug enhances brain mitochondrial function in conjunction with improvement of brain functional network and cognitive function.

The overall hypothesis is that metformin administration to elderly people with insulin resistance enhances brain mitochondrial function in conjunction with improvement of brain function. To test this hypothesis, the investigators will address the following Specific Aims:

  1. Determine whether 40 weeks of metformin administration in elderly people (> 65 years) with insulin resistance enhances brain mitochondrial ATP production. The investigators will measure brain ATP production by 31P-MRS.
  2. Determine the effect of 40 weeks of metformin administration in elderly people (> 65 years) with insulin resistance on blood flow and functional network in different areas of brain. As a secondary outcome, the investigators will measure structural changes in white and grey matter areas of brain to determine whether metformin has any effect on brain structure.
  3. Determine the effect of 40 weeks of metformin administration in elderly people (> 65 years) with insulin resistance on cognitive function. The investigators will utilize the computerized NIH Toolbox to measure cognitive outcomes.

The investigators will also associate outcomes from our specific aims with improvements in whole-body insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

The investigators propose to complete 40 weeks of study in 40 elderly (> 65 years) participants with fasting glucose between 100 to 140 mg/dl and abdominal girth of >102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. All participants will be those who are not oral hypoglycemic agents including metformin. In this double-blind placebo trial, the investigators will randomly assign the participants to placebo or metformin in an escalated dose to reach a maximum of 2500 mg per day.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 40 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: Study will be a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design.
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Metformin Effect on Brain Function in Insulin Resistant Elderly People
Actual Study Start Date : March 15, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 1, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : May 31, 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Participants in placebo group will receive Placebo Oral Tablets identical to the metformin tablets for 10 months.
Drug: Placebo Oral Tablet
Placebo treatment of identical tablets to metformin group
Other Name: Placebo

Active Comparator: Metformin
Participants in placebo group will receive an escalating dose of Metformin hydrochloride tablets up to a dose of 2500mg for 10 months.
Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride
Metformin treatment of 2500mg for 10 months in the Metformin group
Other Name: Metformin




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change from baseline in brain ATP production as measured by phosphorus Magnetic Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) after 10 months of metformin administration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 10 months ]
    Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (dual-tuned proton (Helmholtz pair)/phosphorus (loop) flex coil will be applied such that the phosphorus loop overlies the right DLPFC, WIP 1071, axial 1.5 cm slice prescribed to encompass the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 12x12 matrix reconstructed to 16x16 matrix, 1.5 cm nominal isotropic voxels, TR=1500) will be used to acquire phosphorus metabolite information from the right DLPFC


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change from baseline in brain structure as measured by functional MRI (fMRI) after 10 months of metformin administration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 10 months ]
    An axial 2D symmetric multi-slice (SMS) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence with 60 diffusion directions, 5 B0 acquisitions and 2mm isotropic voxels (TR=3000, TE=73, FA=90, ETL 43, both A-P and P-A phase encoding for B0 images) will be used to acquire white matter integrity data related to metformin.

  2. Change from baseline in cognitive function as measured by NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery after 10 months of metformin administration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 10 months ]
  3. Change from baseline in muscle mitochondrial respiration as measured by oximetry. [ Time Frame: Baseline, 10 months ]
    Oxygen flux in isolated muscle mitochondria will be measured using a titrated substrate protocol on an Oroboros oximetry instrument.

  4. Change from baseline in brain blood flow as measured by functional MRI after 10 months of metformin administration [ Time Frame: Baseline, 10 months ]
    To measure global brain blood flow information: An axial 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL) sequence (WIP 818) with 4mm isotropic voxels (TI1=1800, TI2=3600, iPat ≤ 2) will be used to acquire quantitative blood flow measurements (flow in ml/100g/min) throughout the brain.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   65 Years and older   (Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age >/= 65 years
  • Abdominal girth > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women-
  • Fasting glucose >/= 100-140 mg/dL
  • Non-smoker
  • English language proficiency

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Coronary artery disease or heart failure
  • A known medical condition that in the judgment of the investigator might interfere with the completion of the protocol such as the following examples:

Inpatient psychiatric treatment in the past 6 months

  • Presence of a known adrenal disorder
  • Abnormal liver function test results (Transaminase >2 times the upper limit of normal); testing required for subjects taking medications known to affect liver function or with diseases known to affect liver function
  • Abnormal renal function tests results (calculated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2); testing required for subjects with diabetes duration of greater than 5 years post onset of puberty
  • Active gastroparesis
  • If on antihypertensive, thyroid, anti-depressant or lipid lowering medication, lack of stability on the medication for the past 2 months prior to enrollment in the study
  • Uncontrolled thyroid disease (TSH undetectable or >10 mlU/L): testing required within here months prior to admission for subjects with a goiter, positive antibodies, or who are on thyroid hormone replacement, and within one year otherwise
  • Abuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Infectious process not anticipated to resolve prior to study procedures (e.g. meningitis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis)
  • Uncontrolled arterial hypertension (Resting diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg and/or systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg) at the time of screening
  • Oral steroids
  • A recent injury to body or limb, muscular disorder, use of any medication, any carcinogenic disease, or other significant medical disorder if that injury, medication or disease in the judgment of the investigator will affect the completion of the protocol
  • Any metal in the body that could interfere with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including pacemaker or implanted defibrillator, neurostimulators, ear implants, metal fragments within the body, metal joints, rods, pins, plates or screws
  • Medications that may impact study end points such as mitochondrial biology eg. beta blockers
  • Anti-hyperglycemic drugs including metformin
  • Any other medication that the investigator believes is a contraindication to the subject's participation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03733132


Contacts
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Contact: Susan Sawinski 507-284-8359 Sawinski.Susan@mayo.edu

Locations
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United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic in Rochester Recruiting
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mayo Clinic
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: K Sreekumaran Nair, M.D., Ph.D. Mayo Clinic

Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: K. Sreekumaran Nair, Professor of Medicine and Consultant in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03733132     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 18-004012
1R21AG060139-01 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: November 7, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 23, 2019
Last Verified: April 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by K. Sreekumaran Nair, Mayo Clinic:
Insulin Resistance
Cognition
Cognitive Impairment
Brain Function

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Obesity
Insulin Resistance
Obesity, Abdominal
Overnutrition
Nutrition Disorders
Overweight
Body Weight
Signs and Symptoms
Hyperinsulinism
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Insulin
Metformin
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs