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Study of CAR T-Cells Targeting the GD2 With IL-15+iCaspase9 for Relapsed/Refractory Neuroblastoma or Relapsed/Refractory Osteosarcoma

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03721068
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : October 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 5, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center

Brief Summary:

The body has different ways of fighting infections and disease. No single way seems perfect for fighting cancer. This research study combines two different ways of fighting disease: antibodies and T cells. Antibodies are molecules that fight infections and protect your body from diseases caused by bacteria and toxic substances. Antibodies work by sticking to those bacteria or substances, which stops them from growing and causing bad effects. T cells are special infection-fighting blood cells that can kill other cells, including tumor cells or cells that are infected. Both antibodies and T cells have been used to treat patients with cancers. They both have shown promise, but neither alone has been enough to cure most patients. This study is designed to combine both T cells and antibodies in order to create a more effective treatment. The treatment that is being researched is called autologous T lymphocyte chimeric antigen receptor cells (CAR) cells targeted against the disialoganglioside (GD2) antigen that express Interleukin (IL)-15, and the inducible caspase 9 safety switch (iC9), also known as iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells.

In previous studies, it has been shown that when T cells have part of an antibody attached to them they are better at recognizing and killing cancer cells. The antibody that will be used in this study is called anti-GD2. This antibody floats around in the blood and can detect and stick to cancer cells called neuroblastoma cells because they have a substance on the outside of the cells called GD2. For this study, the anti-GD2 antibody has been changed so instead of floating freely in the blood, it is now joined to the T cells. However, it is unknown how long the iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells last in the body, so their chances of fighting cancer cells are not well known.

To improve the tumor fighting power of GD2-CAR-T cells, our researchers have added two additional components to these cells. The IL-15 gene was added so that the GD2-CAR-T cells can attack tumor cells more effectively. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a chemical that cells use to communicate with one another. Other research using IL-15 in combination with CAR-T cells has shown there is an increase in the body's ability to allow the CAR-T cells to survive and grow in the body. The iC9 gene was added as an "off switch" so it can stop the activity of the GD2-CAR-T cells if you experience any serious bad side effects. Bad side effects seen previously in patients receiving the GD2 antibody alone include pain. In this study, the "stop switch" can be used to turn off the GD2-CAR-T cells if you experience intense pain that does not respond to normal pain treatments.

The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether receiving iC9.GD2.IL-15 T cells is safe and tolerable in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Biological: iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T-cells Drug: Cyclophosphamide Drug: Fludarabine Phase 1

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 18 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Study of Autologous Activated T-Cells Expressing a 2nd Generation GD2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor, IL-15, and iCaspase9 Safety Switch Administered To Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Neuroblastoma or Relapsed/Refractory Osteosarcoma
Actual Study Start Date : February 19, 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date : September 19, 2023
Estimated Study Completion Date : September 19, 2038


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T-cells
The continuous reassessment method (CRM) will be used to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of cells that to be given in dose escalation cohorts comprised of 2-6 subjects. The final MTD will be the dose with estimated probability of dose limiting toxicity (DLT) closest to the target toxicity rate of 20%. Three cell doses will be evaluated: 0.5 x 10^6 cells/kg, 1.0 x 10^6 cells/kg, 1.5 x 10^6 cells/kg. Cohort enrollment will be staggered and each subject must complete at least 2 weeks of the cell treatment without incident of DLT before another subject can be enrolled at that dose level. A minimum of two subjects must complete the 4-week post-infusion DLT period before enrollment at the next higher dose level will be considered. If dose level 1 is determined to be above a tolerable dose, de-escalation would occur to dose level -1 where subjects would receive 0.25 x 10^6 cells/kg.
Biological: iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T-cells
Three dose levels are being evaluated: 0.5 x 10^6, 1.0 x 10^6, 1.5 x 10^6

Drug: Cyclophosphamide
500 mg/m^2 IV dose on days 1-2 for lymphodepletion prior to cell infusion

Drug: Fludarabine
30 mg/m^2 IV dose on days 1-4 for lymphodepletion prior to cell infusion




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of participants with adverse events as a measure of safety and tolerability of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells administered to pediatric subjects with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma or relapsed/refractory osteosarcoma [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    Toxicity will be classified and graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (AEs) (CTCAE, version 5.0), a descriptive terminology which can be utilized for AE reporting. A grading (severity) scale is provided for each AE term/symptom: Grade 1 (Mild; asymptomatic); Grade 2 (Moderate; minimal, local or noninvasive intervention indicated); Grade 3 (Severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening; hospitalization indicated; disabling); Grade 4 (Life-threatening consequences; urgent intervention indicated); Grade 5 (Death related to AE). Immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) symptoms will be graded according to the criteria outlined in the protocol on a scale from 1 (mild) to 4 (critical). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) will be graded according to criteria outlined in the protocol on a scale from 1 (mild) to grade 5 (death).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells administered to pediatric subjects with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma or relapsed/refractory osteosarcoma [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    Tolerability of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells will be assessed by NCI-CTCAE criteria and the CRS grading criteria outlined in Section 12.4 and neurotoxicity/ICANS will be graded according to criteria outlined in Section 12.5

  2. Expansion and persistence of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 cells in vivo [ Time Frame: 15 years ]
    Persistence of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells in vivo will be determined by quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples

  3. Anti-tumor response rate to iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 t cell administration in pediatric subjects with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma per Revised International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INCR) or relapsed/refractory osteosarcoma by RECIST v1.1 [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ]
    The overall response rate (ORR = complete (CR) + partial (PR) + minor (MR) responses) to iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cell infusion will be determined using the revised International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC) for subjects with neuroblastoma. The overall response rate (ORR = complete (CR) + partial (PR) responses) for subjects with osteosarcoma will be measured using Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) version 1.1

  4. Overall survival (OS) in pediatric subjects with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma or relapsed/refractory osteosarcoma treated with iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells [ Time Frame: 15 years ]
    OS will be measured from the date of administration of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells to the date of death

  5. Progression free survival (PFS) in pediatric subjects with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma or relapsed/refractory osteosarcoma treated with iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells [ Time Frame: 15 years ]
    PFS is defined from the date of administration of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cells to the date of signs and symptoms of treatment failure or relapse from CR or PR, or death from any cause.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Months to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

SUBJECT ELIGIBILITY

All clinical and laboratory data required for determining eligibility must be available in the subject's medical/research record which will serve as the source document.

Because of the nature of iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T cell product preparation, subjects will be assessed for initial study enrollment eligibility (prior to cell procurement) and then will have to meet criteria prior to starting lymphodepletion and prior to T cell infusion.

Note: During the period between cell procurement and lymphodepletion, subjects are allowed to receive additional standard of care chemotherapy (bridging chemotherapy) to stabilize their disease if the treating physician feels it is in the subject's best interests. Subjects may receive bridging chemotherapy and/or retinoic acid and/or radiation therapy as deemed necessary by treating physician during period from cell procurement until start of lymphodepleting chemotherapy.

3.1 Inclusion Criteria for the Study: 3.1.1 Written HIPAA authorization signed by legal guardian. 3.1.2 Adequate performance status as defined by Lansky or Karnofsky performance status of ≥ 60 (Lansky for <16 years of age).

3.1.3 Life expectancy ≥12 weeks. 3.1.4 Histological confirmation of neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroblastoma at initial diagnosis. Bone marrow samples are acceptable as confirmation of neuroblastoma.

OR

Confirmation of osteosarcoma at diagnosis 3.1.5 High risk neuroblastoma with persistent/refractory or relapsed disease, defined as:

  • First or greater relapse of neuroblastoma following completion of aggressive multi-drug frontline therapy.
  • First episode of progressive neuroblastoma during aggressive multi-drug frontline therapy.
  • Persistent/refractory neuroblastoma as defined by less than a complete response (by the revised INRC) at the conclusion of at least 4 cycles of aggressive multidrug induction chemotherapy on or according to a high-risk neuroblastoma protocol (such as A3973 or ANBL0532).
  • Patients must be diagnosed with high risk neuroblastoma at initial diagnosis or if non-high risk at time of initial diagnosis must have had evidence of metastatic progression when >18 months of age. (See Section 12.8for COG and INRG definitions if needed) OR relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma that is not responsive to standard treatment.

3.1.6 Measurable or evaluable disease per Revised International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (See Section 12.5) for subjects with neuroblastoma OR measurable disease by RECIST v1.1 criteria (See Section 12.12) for subjects with osteosarcoma.

3.1.7 Adequate central nervous system function as defined by:

• No known CNS disease

  • No seizure disorder requiring antiepileptic drug therapy 3.1.8 Adequate cardiac function as defined by:
  • Shortening fraction of ≥27% by echocardiogram 3.1.9 Adequate pulmonary function as defined by:
  • No chronic oxygen requirement and room air pulse oximetry >94%. 3.1.10 Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to cell procurement. NOTE: Premenarchal females do not require pregnancy testing.

3.1.11 Females of childbearing potential must be willing to abstain from heterosexual activity or to use 2 forms of effective methods of contraception from the time of informed consent until 3 months after treatment discontinuation. The two contraception methods can be comprised of two barrier methods, or a barrier method plus a hormonal method or an intrauterine device that meets <1% failure rate for protection from pregnancy in the product label.

3.1.12 Male subjects with female partners must have had a prior vasectomy, be willing to abstain from heterosexual activity or agree to use an adequate method of contraception (i.e., double barrier method: condom plus spermicidal agent) starting with the first dose of study therapy through 3 months after the last dose of study therapy.

3.1.13 As determined by the enrolling physician, subject is willing and able to comply with study procedures.

3.2 Exclusion Criteria for the Study Subjects meeting any of the following exclusion criteria will not be able to participate in this study (procurement, lymphodepletion and cell infusion).

3.2.1 Pregnant or breastfeeding (NOTE: breast milk cannot be stored for future use while the mother is being treated on study).

3.2.2 Has a known additional malignancy that is active and/or progressive requiring treatment.

3.2.3 History of hypersensitivity reactions to murine protein-containing products.

3.2.4 History of hypersensitivity to cyclophosphamide or fludarabine. 3.2.5 Systemic steroid use except as below:

  • Physiologic replacement for adrenal insufficiency is allowed at doses of hydrocortisone 6-12 mg/m2/day or equivalent.
  • Inhaled steroids are allowed.
  • Other than the above, systemic steroids must be stopped >14 days prior to procurement, but may be resumed after procurement if needed as per treating physician. Systemic steroids must be stopped 48 hours prior to lymphodepletion and not used after infusion unless clinically required.

3.2.6 Uncontrolled infection requiring systemic therapy. 3.2.7 Subjects are required to be negative for HIV antibody or HIV viral load, negative for HTLV1 and 2 antibody or PCR negative for HTLV1 and 2, negative for Hepatitis B surface antigen, or negative for HCV antibody or HCV viral load. Tests can be pending at the time of cell procurement; only those samples confirming lack of active infection will be used to generate transduced cells.

3.3 Eligibility criteria to be met prior to procurement 3.3.1 Written informed consent to undergo cell procurement signed by legal guardian must be obtained prior to procurement. Written assent required as applicable for age <15 years old.

3.3.2 Age greater than 18 months and less than 18 years at the time of consent. 3.3.3 Imaging and bone marrow study results from within 90 days prior to procurement to assess presence of active disease. Bone marrow studies are only relevant for neuroblastoma subjects.

3.3.4 Subjects who have received murine antibodies must have documentation of absence of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA). Test can be pending at the time of cell procurement; only those patients with confirmed absence of HAMA will have cells generated.

3.3.5 Adequate organ function as defined in the table below; all labs to be obtained within 7 days of procurement

System Laboratory Value Hematological* Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) ≥ 0.8 x 109/L Platelets (transfusion independent) ≥ 50 x 109/L Renal Age Maximum Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) Male Female 1 to <2 years ≤0.6 ≤0.6 2 to <6 years ≤0.8 ≤0.8 6 to <10 years ≤1 ≤1 10 to <13 years ≤1.2 ≤1.2 13 to <16 years ≤1.5 ≤1.4 ≥16 years ≤1.7 ≤1.4

Hepatic Total Bilirubin ≤ 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) for age Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 500 U/L Coagulation International Normalized Ratio (INR) ≤ 2 × ULN

  • Subjects with known bone marrow involvement are eligible even if they have not met the above Hematological eligibility criteria. However, those subjects must be able to be supported with transfusions to prevent life-threatening bleeding as per investigator discretion. NB: Bone marrow involvement is only relevant to neuroblastoma subjects.

3.3.1 Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to cell procurement. NOTE: Premenarchal females do not require pregnancy testing.

3.4 Eligibility criteria to be met prior to lymphodepletion

3.4.1 Written informed consent to enroll in the iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 cell therapy trial signed by legal guardian must be obtained prior to starting lymphodepletion. Written assent required as applicable for age <15 years old.

3.4.2 Subjects must have imaging and bone marrow study (bone marrow only applicable for neuroblastoma subjects) results within 14 days prior to lymphodepletion (used as baseline measure for documentation of progression before the lymphodepletion). Subjects who have received bridging chemotherapy must have imaging and bone marrow study results at least 3 weeks after most recent therapy.

3.4.3 Adequate organ function as defined in the table below:

System Laboratory Value Hematological* Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) ≥ 0.8 x 109/L Platelets (transfusion independent) ≥ 50 x 109/L Renal** Age Maximum Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) Male Female

  1. to <2 years ≤0.6 ≤0.6
  2. to <6 years ≤0.8 ≤0.8

6 to <10 years ≤1 ≤1 10 to <13 years ≤1.2 ≤1.2 13 to <16 years ≤1.5 ≤1.4

≥16 years ≤1.7 ≤1.4

Hepatic Total Bilirubin ≤ 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) for age Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 500 U/L

  • Subjects with known bone marrow involvement are eligible even if they have not met the above Hematological eligibility criteria. However, those subjects must be able to be supported with transfusions to prevent life-threatening bleeding as per investigator discretion. NB: Bone marrow involvement is only relevant to neuroblastoma subjects.

    • Subjects with moderate impairment of renal function (normalized creatinine clearance 30-70 mL/min/1.73m2) should have their fludarabine dose reduced by 20% and be monitored closely for excessive toxicity.

3.4.4 Treatment with any investigational drug within 21 days of lymphodepletion or any tumor vaccines within the previous six weeks prior to lymphodepletion.

3.4.5 Adequate performance status as defined by Lansky or Karnofsky performance status of ≥ 60 (Lansky for <16 years of age).

3.4.6 Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to lymphodepletion. NOTE: Premenarchal females do not require pregnancy testing.

3.4.7 Available autologous transduced activated T cells product meets the certificate of analysis.

3.4.8 Subject has not received aldesleukin (IL-2) within 28 days of starting lymphodepletion.

3.4.9 Subject has not received:

  • filgrastim (G-CSF) (or biosimilar) within 7 days of starting lymphodepletion;
  • sargramostim (GM-CSF) within 14 days of starting lymphodepletion;
  • pegfilgrastim within 21 days of starting lymphodepletion.

3.4.10 Systemic steroid use is prohibited, except as below:

  • Physiologic replacement for adrenal insufficiency is allowed at doses of hydrocortisone 6-12 mg/m2/day or equivalent.
  • Inhaled steroids are allowed.
  • Other than the above, systemic steroids must be stopped 48 hours prior to lymphodepletion and not used after infusion unless clinically required.

3.4.11 Prior autologous stem cell transplant is allowed as long as it occurred ≥4 weeks prior to lymphodepletion.

3.4.12 Prior therapeutic 131I-MIBG is allowed as long as it is completed ≥4 weeks prior to lymphodepletion.

3.4.13 Prior anti-GD2 therapy (such as dinutuximab) is allowed as long as it is completed ≥4 weeks prior to lymphodepletion.

3.4.14 Subject did not have major surgery within 14 days of starting lymphodepletion.

3.4.15 Subjects that have received bridging therapy with murine antibodies must have documentation of absence of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) prior to lymphodepletion.

3.4.16 Subject is not taking a prohibited or contraindicated medication listed in Section 4.2.12 prior to lymphodepletion. Contraindicated medications should be discontinued at least two weeks prior to the scheduled lymphodepletion or by at least 5 half-lives of the contraindicated medication, whichever is shorter.

3.4.17 Subject does not have disease progression that would, in the opinion of the treating physician, place the subject at significant potential risk, such as location of lesion that would have high risk with tumor swelling (examples include airway or spinal canal).

3.4.18 No evidence of uncontrolled infection or sepsis.

3.5 Eligibility criteria to be met prior to cell infusion after lymphodepletion 3.5.1 Subject is a good candidate for treatment per investigator's discretion. 3.5.2 No evidence of uncontrolled infection or sepsis.

3.6 Eligibility Criteria Prior to Lymphodepltion for Second Infusion (Optional) 3.6.1 Subjects must not have received bridging therapy after their initial iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 cell infusion.

3.6.2 Adequate organ function as defined in the table below: System Laboratory Value Hematological* Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) ≥ 0.8 x 109/L Platelets (transfusion independent) ≥ 50 x 109/L Renal** Age Maximum Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) Male Female 1 to <2 years ≤0.6 ≤0.6 2 to <6 years ≤0.8 ≤0.8 6 to <10 years ≤1 ≤1 10 to <13 years ≤1.2 ≤1.2 13 to <16 years ≤1.5 ≤1.4

≥16 years ≤1.7 ≤1.4

Hepatic Total Bilirubin ≤ 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN) for age Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 500 U/L

  • Subjects with known bone marrow involvement are eligible even if they have not met the above Hematological eligibility criteria. However, those subjects must be able to be supported with transfusions to prevent life-threatening bleeding as per investigator discretion. NB: Bone marrow involvement is only relevant to neuroblastoma subjects.

    • Subjects with moderate impairment of renal function (normalized creatinine clearance 30-70 mL/min/1.73m2) should have their fludarabine dose reduced by 20% and be monitored closely for excessive toxicity.

3.6.3 Adequate performance status as defined by Lansky or Karnofsky performance status of ≥ 60 (Lansky for <16 years of age).

3.6.4 Females of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to lymphodepletion. NOTE: Premenarchal females do not require pregnancy testing.

3.6.5 Subject has not received:

  • filgrastim (G-CSF) (or biosimilar) within 7 days of starting lymphodepletion;
  • sargramostim (GM-CSF) within 14 days of starting lymphodepletion;
  • pegfilgrastim within 21 days of starting lymphodepletion.

3.6.6 Systemic steroid use is prohibited, except as below:

  • Physiologic replacement for adrenal insufficiency is allowed at doses of hydrocortisone 6-12 mg/m2/day or equivalent.
  • Inhaled steroids are allowed.
  • Other than the above, systemic steroids must be stopped 48 hours prior to lymphodepletion and not used after infusion unless clinically required.

3.6.7 Subject did not have major surgery within 14 days of starting lymphodepletion.

3.6.8 Subject is not taking a prohibited or contraindicated medication listed in Section 4.2.12 prior to lymphodepletion. Contraindicated medications should be discontinued at least two weeks prior to the scheduled lymphodepletion or by at least 5 half-lives of the contraindicated medication, whichever is shorter.

3.6.9 No evidence of uncontrolled infection or sepsis. 3.6.10 Subject has completed the initial safety evaluation period without DLTs. 3.6.11 Subject has not experienced additional toxicity(ies) directly attributable to the initial T-cell infusion that would place them at excessive risk with re-infusion.

3.6.12 Subject has derived clinical benefit from the initial infusion as assessed by the investigator (stable disease or better to the initial infusion).

3.6.13 Subject has sufficient stored iC9.GD2.CAR.IL-15 T-cells for re-infusion.

3.7 Eligibility Criteria Prior to Second Infusion (Optional) 3.7.1 Subject is a good candidate for treatment per investigator's discretion. 3.7.2 No evidence of uncontrolled infection or sepsis.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03721068


Contacts
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Contact: Catherine Cheng 919-445-4208 catherine_cheng@med.unc.edu
Contact: Spencer Laing 919-962-8618 spencer.laing@med.unc.edu

Locations
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United States, North Carolina
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Recruiting
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599-7295
Contact: Clinical Trials Office - Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Cente    919-966-4432      
Sponsors and Collaborators
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: George Hucks, MD UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03721068    
Other Study ID Numbers: LCCC 1743-ATL
First Posted: October 26, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 5, 2021
Last Verified: March 2021

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center:
Autologous Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells
Interleukin (IL)-15
Disialoganglioside (GD2)
Caspase 9
Pediatric
Rimiducid
AP1903
modified T cells
CAR T
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Neuroblastoma
Osteosarcoma
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral
Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Neoplasms, Bone Tissue
Neoplasms, Connective Tissue
Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue
Sarcoma
Cyclophosphamide
Fludarabine
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Alkylating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Myeloablative Agonists