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Effects of Nature Exposure on Smoking Behavior

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03716440
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 23, 2018
Last Update Posted : October 30, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Lucian Conway, University of Montana

Brief Summary:

Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the U.S. While smoking is a significant threat to public health in the US in general, the negative effects of smoking disproportionately affect Americans with 12 or fewer years of education and those living below the poverty line. Given these health disparities, it is vital to have widely-available treatments that can be applied in multiple contexts in a cost-efficient way. While numerous methodologies and intervention programs exist, there is a need for improved cessation programs targeted to smokers with low levels of education attainment and income, as these smokers tend to be less likely to receive cessation assistance from a health care provider or have sufficient resources to access treatments. Therefore, the present proposal aims to assess the feasibility of a tool that will improve smoking cessation programs in a short and cost-effective manner: a brief exposure to nature.

The health and wellbeing benefits of nature exposure have been well researched and are widely recognized, and research on the underlying mechanism for nature's positive impact on health has identified a reduction in impulsivity as a mediator of this effect. However, this work has never been directly translated to smoking outcomes, and thus the translational purpose of the present project is to assess the feasibility of a brief and cost-effective nature exposure intervention on smoking cessation outcomes. Prior work demonstrates the validity of the causal links in the nature -> impulsivity -> smoking cessation model. Research has shown that nature exposure reduces impulsivity for health-related outcomes, and found that increased impulsivity is linked to all stages of smoking. A necessary step in developing a practical application for this research is the aim of the present project.

Smokers will be recruited online and randomly assigned to either the Nature or Control condition. Participants in the Nature condition will be given a nature-based intervention, while participants in the Control condition will be given a non-nature-based intervention. Participants will be contacted via text message throughout the following 24 hours and asked to report their degree of urgency to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked. Participants will complete measurements of impulsivity, income, socio-economic status, and education, and additional smoking-related constructs.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Tobacco Smoking Other: Nature exposure Other: Non-nature exposure Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 42 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Using Nature Exposure Research to Reduce Impulsivity in Smokers
Actual Study Start Date : April 2, 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 30, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : June 30, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Smoking

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Nature group
Nature exposure intervention.
Other: Nature exposure
Participants will view images of nature.

Active Comparator: Non-nature group
Non-nature exposure intervention.
Other: Non-nature exposure
Participants will view non-nature images.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. 1-item Desire to Smoke Measure [ Time Frame: 1 day ]
    Self reported rating of desire to smoke. This item is scored 1 - 10 (1 = no desire to smoke; 10 = craving to smoke is extreme).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Smoked at least two cigarettes per day for the last seven or more days
  • Must be 18 years old or older
  • Must have a smart cellular phone that can send and receive text messages and open web links

Exclusion Criteria:


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03716440

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United States, Montana
University of Montana
Missoula, Montana, United States, 59812
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Montana
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Principal Investigator: Luke Conway, PhD University of Montana

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Responsible Party: Lucian Conway, Professor of Social Psychology, University of Montana Identifier: NCT03716440    
Other Study ID Numbers: 44-17
First Posted: October 23, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 30, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No