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Tramadol/Diclofenac Fixed-dose Combination Phase III Trial in Acute Pain After Third Molar Extraction

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03714672
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 22, 2018
Results First Posted : July 24, 2019
Last Update Posted : July 24, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Grünenthal, S.A.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Grünenthal GmbH

Brief Summary:
This study evaluated a new drug fixed-dose combination tablet (FDC) called tramadol/diclofenac at two different strengths (fixed doses of 25 milligrams [mg] of tramadol and of diclofenac or of 50 mg each). Tramadol and diclofenac each relieve pain, but they do so by different mechanisms. They were used alone as comparator drug in this study. Both are marketed drugs and are standard treatment for acute pain, including wisdom tooth removal.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Acute Pain Drug: Tramadol/Diclofenac 50/50 Drug: Tramadol/Diclofenac 25/25 Drug: Tramadol 50 Drug: Diclofenac 50 Phase 3

Detailed Description:

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the FDC of Tramadol and Diclofenac 50/50 has superior analgesic effect than the monotherapies and that the FDC of Tramadol and Diclofenac 25/25 has non-inferior analgesic effect than the monotherapies. There was an Enrollment Period, a blinded Treatment Period, and a Follow-up Period. Previously used analgesic medication was washed out for at least 24 hours before surgery. The Treatment Period starts on Day 1 with dental surgery and treatment allocation. Treatment was started within 4 hours after the end of surgery if the participant's pain intensity had reached at least 5 points on the 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). Each participant received 3 doses of one of the four treatments within 24 hours. One fourth of the participants received the fixed-dose combination tablet at a low dose, one fourth at the higher dose, one fourth received 50 mg of the comparator tramadol alone, and one fourth 50 mg of the comparator diclofenac alone.

The first 2 doses of the investigational medicinal product (IMP) were taken at the site, the last dose in an out-patient setting. Participants returned to the site at 24 hours after the first dose. A Follow-up Period included a final visit at the site or a phone call on Day 14 to assess the participant's safety.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1151 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description: This study used double-blind and double-dummy methods to guarantee the blinding of all personnel involved in the study. Participants, investigators, and all persons involved in the conduct, data management, and analysis of the study were fully blinded to the participant's treatment.
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Double-blind, Multi-site, Comparator-controlled, Phase III Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of a Fixed-dose Combination of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in Acute Moderate to Severe Pain After Third Molar Extraction
Actual Study Start Date : August 26, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 9, 2018
Actual Study Completion Date : March 22, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tramadol/Diclofenac 50/50
Participants received 3 doses of tramadol hydrochloride/diclofenac sodium 50 mg/50 mg over a 24-hour period if they developed acute moderate to severe pain within 4 hours after third molar extraction.
Drug: Tramadol/Diclofenac 50/50
Each dose comprised 1 fixed-dose combination tablet and 3 placebo tablets or capsules matching the other active treatment groups. Doses were taken 8 hours apart.
Other Name: Adorlan Forte (Registered Trademark)

Experimental: Tramadol/Diclofenac 25/25
Participants received 3 doses of tramadol hydrochloride/diclofenac sodium 25 mg/25 mg over a 24-hour period if they developed acute moderate to severe pain within 4 hours after third molar extraction.
Drug: Tramadol/Diclofenac 25/25
Each dose comprised 1 fixed-dose combination tablet and 3 placebo tablets or capsules matching the other active treatment groups. Doses were taken 8 hours apart.
Other Name: Adorlan (Registered Trademark)

Active Comparator: Tramadol 50
Participants received 3 doses of tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg over a 24-hour period if they developed acute moderate to severe pain within 4 hours after third molar extraction.
Drug: Tramadol 50
Each dose comprised 1 capsule containing 50 mg tramadol hydrochloride and 3 placebo tablets matching the other active treatment groups. Doses were taken 8 hours apart.
Other Names:
  • Tramadol immediate-release capsule
  • Tradol (Registered Trademark)

Active Comparator: Diclofenac 50
Participants received 3 doses of diclofenac sodium 50 mg over a 24-hour period if they developed acute moderate to severe pain within 4 hours after third molar extraction
Drug: Diclofenac 50
Each dose comprised 1 tablet containing 50 mg diclofenac sodium and 3 placebo tablets or capsules matching the other active treatment groups. Doses were taken 8 hours apart.
Other Name: Voltaren (Registered Trademark) (diclofenac enteric-coated tablet)




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Pain Relief Expressed as Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR) Over the 4 Hours Post-dose Period (TOTPAR4) [ Time Frame: Up to 4 hours after first dose ]
    Pain relief was assessed by the participant at defined time points after the first IMP dose using a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS) with categories 0 (none), 1 (a little), 2 (some), 3 (a lot), or 4 (complete). Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR4) is a time-weighted summary measure of the total area under the pain relief curve that integrates serial assessments of a participant's pain over the duration of 4 hours after IMP intake. Minimum and maximum values for TOTPAR4 were 0=worst score and 16=best score, a higher score indicates more pain relief.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Total Pain Relief at 6 Hours Post-dose (TOTPAR6) [ Time Frame: Up to 6 hours after first dose ]
    Pain relief was assessed by the participant at defined time points after the first IMP dose using a 5-point VRS with categories 0 (none), 1 (a little), 2 (some), 3 (a lot), or 4 (complete). Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR6) is a time-weighted summary measure of the total area under the pain relief curve that integrates serial assessments of a participant's pain over the duration of 6 hours after IMP intake. Minimum and maximum values for TOTPAR6 were 0=worst score and 24=best score, a higher score indicates more pain relief.

  2. Total Pain Relief at 8 Hours Post-dose (TOTPAR8) [ Time Frame: Up to 8 hours after first dose ]
    Pain relief was assessed by the participant at defined time points after the first IMP dose using a 5-point VRS with categories 0 (none), 1 (a little), 2 (some), 3 (a lot), or 4 (complete). Total Pain Relief (TOTPAR8) is a time-weighted summary measure of the total area under the pain relief curve that integrates serial assessments of a participant's pain over the duration of 8 hours after IMP intake. Minimum and maximum values for TOTPAR8 were 0=worst score and 32=best score, a higher score indicates more pain relief.

  3. Summed Pain Intensity Difference (SPID) at 4, 6, 8, and 24 Hours Post-dose [ Time Frame: Baseline; up to 24 hours after first dose ]
    Pain intensity was assessed by the participant before and at defined time points after the first IMP dose using an 11-point NRS with anchors at 0 for "no pain" and 10 for "pain as bad as you can imagine". Pain Intensity Difference (PIDt) was defined as the difference between baseline pain intensity and pain intensity at time point t, and SPID defined as summed PIDt x [time (hours) elapsed since previous observation]. The SPID scores are the sum of the differences at each time point multiplied by the duration in hours since the previous time point. Positive numbers indicate a reduction in pain [maximum=10 at each time point], and negative numbers indicate an increase in pain [minimum=-10 at each time point]. The overall minimum and maximum are -10 and 10 times the number of hours specified (SPID-4=[-40 to 40], SPID-6=[-60 to 60], SPID-8=[-80 to 80], and SPID-24=[-240 to 240]).

  4. Time to Achieve a 50 Percent Reduction in Baseline Pain (Pain at Least Half Gone) [ Time Frame: Up to 24 hours after first dose ]
    Time (hours) when the participant achieved a 50 percent reduction of baseline (starting) pain. It was assessed at defined time points after the first IMP dose using a YES or NO question for pain half gone.

  5. Time to Onset of First Perceptible Pain Relief [ Time Frame: Up to 8 hours after first dose ]
    Participants used one stopwatch to document the time between first IMP dose and when they begin to feel any pain-relieving effect from the IMP.

  6. Time to Onset of Meaningful Pain Relief [ Time Frame: Up to 8 hours after first dose ]
    Participants used a second stopwatch to document the time between first IMP dose and when they felt their pain relief was meaningful to them.

  7. Time to Intake of First Rescue Medication Dose [ Time Frame: First dose to 24 hours after first dose ]
    The time from first IMP dose to first dose of rescue medication (ibuprofen or ketorolac), if needed, within 24 hours post-dose was calculated.

  8. Subject's Global Evaluation of the Treatment [ Time Frame: 8 hours after the first dose of IMP or before first intake of rescue medication (whatever the first) and 24 hours after the first dose of IMPs ]
    Participants documented their overall impression of the analgesic efficacy of the IMPs on a 5-point Likert scale from Excellent (4) to Poor (0).

  9. Incidence and Type of Adverse Events [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Day 14 ]
    The incidence of treatment emergent adverse events (TEAE) reported from first dose (Day 1) to last scheduled contact with the participant on Day 14 was descriptively summarized. Selected TEAEs were events with preferred terms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, dizziness, or hypotension.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. The participant has read the informed consent form, has understood the relevant aspects of the clinical study, and grants his/her authorization to participate by signing the informed consent form prior to the inclusion in the clinical study and the performance of any procedure.
  2. Male and female participants above 18 years up to 60 years.
  3. Female participants of childbearing potential must be practicing an acceptable method of birth control and must have a negative urine pregnancy test at enrollment with confirmation at the Allocation Visit.
  4. Participants are in good health, i.e., the medical record, vital signs, physical examination, and laboratory parameter assessments do not show any abnormal deviations impeding the participation in the clinical study.
  5. Participants requiring extraction of 3 or more third molars with 2 mandibular impacted third molars.
  6. Clinical and radiological diagnosis of impacted lower third molars.
  7. Class I and Class II molars according to Pell and Gregory's classification (Gay Escoda et al. 2004).
  8. Participants must be able to swallow the IMPs.

Exclusion Criteria at Enrollment:

  1. Findings in the medical record, vital signs, and/or physical examination demonstrating abnormal conditions of participant's general state of health preventing his/her participation in the clinical study according to the investigator's opinion.
  2. Participant unable to speak, read, or write in Spanish language.
  3. Clinical laboratory parameters exceed the pre-defined alert ranges (i.e., 1 standard deviation above or below the upper/lower limit of the normal ranges).
  4. Known hypersensitivity to the IMPs, the anesthetic to be used during surgery, or to the rescue medication (ibuprofen, ketorolac).
  5. Known alcohol or drug abuse in the last 6 months or any history of seizures. Alcohol abuse is defined as the consumption of more than 3 ounces (about 90 milliliters) of liquor or spirits or 18 ounces (about 530 milliliters) of beer per day, for 5 consecutive days during the 6-month period. Drug abuse is defined as the use of any recreational drug for 5 consecutive days during the 6 month period.
  6. Participants who take analgesic medication for chronic pain, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, neuroleptics, or other drugs that reduce the seizure threshold within 4 weeks of enrollment.
  7. Pregnant or lactating women.
  8. Participants who received systemic corticosteroids or opioid analgesics less than 2 weeks before surgery.
  9. Participants with molars linked to the mandibular canal.
  10. Participants requiring immediate dental procedures other than third and fourth molars extraction,

    Exclusion Criteria at the Allocation Visit:

  11. Participant received a long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug within 24 hours or 5 times the elimination half-life of that drug prior to surgery, whatever the longer.
  12. Participant received any analgesic medication other than short-acting pre-operative or intra-operative anesthetic agents within 24 hours before taking IMPs.
  13. Participant received more than 300 mg of lidocaine in total.
  14. Participant received any analgesic medication other than the IMPs immediately after the oral surgical procedure was completed.
  15. Baseline pain intensity of the participant after oral surgical procedure remains below 5 points on the 11-point NRS.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03714672


Locations
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Mexico
Private Clinic
Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico, CP 45030
Private Clinic
Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, CP 64000
Private Clinic
Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, CP 64718
Private Clinic
Aguascalientes, Mexico, CP 20230
Private Clinic
Chihuahua, Mexico, CP 31203
Private Clinic
Leon Guanajuato, Mexico, CP 37160
Private Clinic
Puebla, Mexico, CP 72160
University
San Luis Potosí, Mexico, CP 78290
Sponsors and Collaborators
Grünenthal GmbH
Grünenthal, S.A.
Investigators
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Study Director: Grünenthal Study Director Grünenthal GmbH
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Grünenthal GmbH:
Study Protocol  [PDF] October 19, 2017
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] April 19, 2018


Publications:
Gay Escoda C, Piñera Penalva M, Velasco Vivancos V, Berini Aytés L. Cordales incluidos. Patología, clínica y tratamiento del tercer molar incluído. In: Gay Escoda C, Berini Aytés L. (eds.). Tratado de Cirugía Bucal. Tomo I. Madrid: Ergón; 2004. p. 355-85

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Responsible Party: Grünenthal GmbH
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03714672     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: KF8001-01
U1111-1179-2333 ( Other Identifier: World Health Organization )
KF8001-01 ( Registry Identifier: RNEC (Mexico) )
First Posted: October 22, 2018    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 24, 2019
Last Update Posted: July 24, 2019
Last Verified: July 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Information available on the Grünenthal Group Web Site (see URL below for details).
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)
URL: http://www.grunenthal.com/r-d-vision-mission/clinical-trials/data-sharing-clinical-trials

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Grünenthal GmbH:
Wisdom tooth removal
Dental pain
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diclofenac
Acute Pain
Pain
Neurologic Manifestations
Signs and Symptoms
Tramadol
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Analgesics, Opioid
Narcotics
Central Nervous System Depressants