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Muscle Stretching - the Potential Role of Endogenous Pain Inhibitory Modulation on Stretch Tolerance

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03713788
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 22, 2018
Last Update Posted : October 22, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Aalborg University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Morten Pallisgaard, University College of Northern Denmark

Brief Summary:
This study investigates the influence of a remote, painful stimulus on stretch tolerance. Half of the participants will receive a conditioning painful stimulus following static stretching while the other half will rest quietly.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Muscle Stretching Exercises Pain Threshold Other: Cold pressor test Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The effect of stretching on joint range of motion is primarily related to changes in the tolerance to stretch, but the mechanisms underlying this change are still largely unknown.

The nervous system has an inbuilt ability to modulate the perceived magnitude of afferent noxious stimuli via supraspinally mediated endogenous pain inhibition or facilitation and by engaging endogenous mechanisms pain tolerance in healthy individuals is known to increase. Thus increasing the tolerance to pain could potentially increase range of motion following stretching.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 34 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: A sample of convenience was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly assigned to a pain group or a control group using counterbalanced block randomization. Passive knee extension range of motion was measured three consecutive times with five-minute intervals between measurements. Both groups underwent a static stretch protocol consisting of two bouts of thirty-second constant-angle static stretching of the knee flexors with a one-minute rest between bouts. Subjects were instructed to keep the limb relaxed as the lower leg was passively moved towards extension. Following stretching, the post-stretch measurement was performed. Finally, subjects in the pain group were instructed to immerse their non-dominant hand into a container with circulating water at 1˚C to 4˚C and keep it there for 2 minutes. A Biodex system 4 pro dynamometer was used to quantify range of motion and passive resistive torque. Muscle activity was recorded as surface electromyography.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Muscle Stretching - the Potential Role of Endogenous Pain Inhibitory Modulation on Stretch Tolerance
Actual Study Start Date : May 1, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 30, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : November 30, 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Experimental pain group
subjects in the pain group were instructed to immerse their non-dominant hand into a container with circulating water at 1˚C to 4˚C and keep it there for 2 minutes. They were instructed to immerse it to wrist-level and keep the hand open.
Other: Cold pressor test
Participants placed their non-dominant hand into cold water for 2 minutes

No Intervention: Control group
Participants rested in a seated position for 5 minutes.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Knee extension range of motion [ Time Frame: Passive knee extension range of motion was measured at baseline ]
    Passively induced knee extension range of motion was measured usind the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynomometer

  2. Change in knee extension range of motion between baseline and post stretch. [ Time Frame: Changes in passive knee extension range of motion were measured 5 minutes after baseline measures following stretching ]
    Changes in passively induced knee extension range of motion was measured using the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynomometer

  3. Changes in knee extension range of motion between post stretch and post pain. [ Time Frame: Changes in passive knee extension range of motion were measured 5 minutes after post stretch measures following intervention. ]
    Changes in passively induced knee extension range of motion was measured using the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynomometer


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Surface electromyography measures of muscle activity [ Time Frame: Muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion was measured at baseline ]
    Muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion were measured using SEMG.

  2. Changes in surface electromyography measures of muscle activity between baseline and post stretch measures. [ Time Frame: Changes in muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion were measured 5 minutes after baseline measures following stretching. ]
    Changes in muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion were measured using SEMG.

  3. Changes in surface electromyography measures of muscle activity between post stretch and post pain measures. [ Time Frame: Changes in muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion were measured 5 minutes after post stretch measures following intervention. ]
    Changes in muscle activity during the passive knee extension motion were measured using SEMG.

  4. Passive resistive torque using the Biodes system 4 pro. [ Time Frame: Passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured at baseline. ]
    Passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured using the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynamometer.

  5. Changes in passive resistive torque measured using the Biodex system 4 pro between baseline and post stretch measures. [ Time Frame: Changes in passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured 5 minutes after baseline measures following stretching. ]
    Changes in passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured using the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynamometer.

  6. Changes in passive resistive torque measured using the Biodex system 4 pro between post stretch and post pain measures. [ Time Frame: Passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured 5 minutes after post stretch measures following intervention. ]
    Changes in Passive resistive torque during the passive knee extension motion was measured using the Biodex system 4 pro isokinetic dynamometer.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Only males were included to avoid the potential effect that fluctuations in gonadal hormone values may have on the endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms.
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Eligibility for participation included the absence of any pain or other conditions that might affect the somatosensory system.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Substance abuse,
  • History of neurological or mental disabilities
  • Lack of ability to comply with instructions
  • Delayed onset of muscle soreness.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03713788


Locations
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Denmark
University College of Northern Denmark
Aalborg, Denmark, 9220
Sponsors and Collaborators
University College of Northern Denmark
Aalborg University
Investigators
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Study Director: Dorte Drachman, Msc. University College of Northern Denmark, Department of Physiotherapy

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Responsible Party: Morten Pallisgaard, Senior associate lecturer, University College of Northern Denmark
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03713788     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: UniversityCND
First Posted: October 22, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 22, 2018
Last Verified: October 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Morten Pallisgaard, University College of Northern Denmark:
Stretch tolerance
Range of Motion