Kids FACE FEARS Comparative Effectiveness Research
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03707158|
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : October 16, 2018
Last Update Posted : September 24, 2020
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Child Anxiety Anxiety Disorder of Adolescence||Behavioral: Office-based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Behavioral: Digital Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy||Not Applicable|
Anxiety disorders are among the most common and impairing psychiatric disorders to affect children and adolescents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an effective psychological treatment for youth anxiety, with roughly 60-80% of youth showing considerable clinical response and global improvements in functioning. Regrettably, despite the existence of well-supported treatments, most youth with anxiety disorders do not receive any form of treatment, especially in resource poor settings. The pediatric health care setting offers an optimal public health venue for youth anxiety management, yet there is a critical lack of behavioral health specialty care providers who are trained in providing mental health treatment, and a lack of information on the optimal methods of treating anxiety in pediatric settings. Two evidence-based strategies for delivering CBT for youth with mild to moderate anxiety in pediatric settings are (1) face-to-face CBT delivered by therapists within pediatric health care and (2) online delivery of CBT skills to youth and families. Importantly, however, there are no data on the relative effectiveness of these two treatment formats in real-world settings, and no information on which patient subgroups benefit most from which formats in patients in real-world practice.
The study design entails a large-scale, streamlined, pragmatic, Non-Inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT), in which eligible anxious youth presenting to pediatric primary care settings will be randomly assigned to face-to-face versus online Cool Kids suite of CBT intervention for youth anxiety and monitored for up to two years post-intervention. Outcomes for each participant will be monitored across five assessment points, corresponding to baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, 1 year post-baseline, and 2 years post-baseline. Long-term outcomes associated with face-to-face versus online CBT will be evaluated over a 2 -year period post-intervention. We will use the well-established Cool Kids suite of face-to-face and online anxiety CBT protocols within pediatric primary care networks serving primarily racial-ethnic minority children in both urban and rural settings across four regions of the US: the Northeast, the Mid-Atlantic, the Southeast, and the Pacific Northwest. Therapists embedded within pediatric primary care settings and mental health clinics co-located with primary care will provide all services. All participants will be identified and referred for enrollment from pediatric health settings.
This study addresses three critical yet unanswered questions related to improving the delivery of treatment and outcomes for anxiety in pediatric primary care. Answering the following question offers the potential to meaningfully improve the quality of the evidence available to help children, families, and organizational stakeholders make informed decisions regarding clinical practice and implementation strategies for the treatment of childhood anxiety:
- What is the relative effectiveness of implementing face-to-face versus online formats of CBT to treat youth anxiety in pediatric health settings?
- How do factors such as clinical severity, treatment preference, socioeconomic status, computer literacy, distance to clinic, organizational readiness, or medical home status moderate outcomes across treatment formats? Which patient subgroups might benefit most from which formats and sequences of treatment?
- What are the barriers and facilitators to delivering this care in pediatric health settings and for the diverse patient populations served?
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||1856 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Kids Face-to-face And Computer-Enhanced Formats Effectiveness Study for Anxiety and Related Symptoms|
|Actual Study Start Date :||October 8, 2019|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||November 2023|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||January 2025|
Active Comparator: Web-based CBT
The online, multimedia suite of Cool Kids CBT web-based programs for youth anxiety is a supported, largely self-administered online digital cognitive-behavioral therapy anxiety management intervention, with adjunctive therapist phone support. Treatment content runs directly parallel to that included in the therapist-led Cool Kids face-to-face suite of interventions. The online suite of interventions is comprised of three developmentally tailored programs, depending on the age of the child.
Behavioral: Digital Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Participants receiving digital cognitive-behavioral therapy will complete an online, largely self-administered CBT program for up to 16 weeks with 8 modules and adjunctive therapist phone support. Treatment modules focus on psychoeducation about anxiety, thought challenging and cognitive restructuring, somatic management skills training, youth exposure to feared stimuli, family patterns associated with the maintenance of youth anxiety, and contingent reinforcement.
Active Comparator: Face-to-Face CBT
The Cool Kids suite of face-to-face CBT-based programs for youth anxiety is a well-supported therapist-led, clinic-based anxiety management intervention. The office-based cognitive-behavioral therapy treatment content runs directly parallel to that included in the Cool Kids online suite of interventions. The face=to-face suite of interventions is comprised of three developmentally tailored programs, depending on the age of the child.
Behavioral: Office-based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Participants receiving office-based cognitive-behavioral therapy will participate in therapist-led, face-to-face CBT treatment for up to 16 weeks. Sessions focus on psychoeducation about anxiety, thought challenging and cognitive restructuring, somatic management skills training, youth exposure to feared stimuli, family patterns associated with the maintenance of youth anxiety, and contingent reinforcement.
- Promis Pediatric Short Form Item Bank v. 2.0-Anxiety [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline, Week 6, Week 12, Year 1 and Year 2 ]This screening form is a publicly available self-report and parent proxy measure that assesses youth fear, anxiety, misery, hyper-arousal, and somatic symptoms related to arousal. It also assesses behavioral fear avoidance. The form is available in English and Spanish and has excellent reliability and validity. The form includes 8 items and uses a scale of 1-5 (1=Never, 2=Almost never, 3= Sometimes, 4=Often, 5=Almost always). The raw score is the sum of the points for each response. A higher than average raw score indicates higher than average anxiety. A higher score represents higher levels of anxiety.
- Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale (CALIS) [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline, Week 6, Week 12, Year 1 and Year 2 ]The Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale (CALIS) is a parent and child-report measure of life interference and impairment associated with child anxiety. The CALIS has demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and assesses impairments in family, peer, academic, and extracurricular life domains. The CALIS consists of one 10-item scale administered to children, and two 9-item scales administered to parents. All items, which relate to common activities (e.g. "being with friends outside of school" or "your career choice"), are rated on a five-point Likert scale (0 = not at all, 4 = a great deal), with higher scores indicating higher anxiety life interference.
- Beliefs and Attitudes about Technology as a Child Health Resource (BATCH-R) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]The Beliefs and Attitudes about Technology as a Child Health Resource (BATCH-R) is a brief self-report that assesses ones perspectives on the acceptability and trustworthiness of technology-based resources for child health and development. The BATCH-R has a parent version that used to assess parent's attitudes on the use of technology for the child and an adolescent version that assesses their attitudes on the use of technology for their own care. The report includes 7 items that are rated on a 0-5 scale with 0 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree. High BATCH-R scores reflect great openness to, and trust in, technology-based child health resources, whereas low BATCH-R scores reflect limited openness to, and poor trust in, technology-based child health resources.
- Evidence-Based Practice Attitudes Scale (EBPAS) Short Form [ Time Frame: Baseline, An average of 1 year, An average of 2 year ]The short form of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) is a brief 15-item therapist report of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of evidence-based practices. Items assess individual differences in perceived appeal of evidence-based practices, openness to new practices, and perceived divergence of evidence-based practices from usual practices. The items are rated on a scale of 0-4 (0= "Not at all", 1= "To a slight extent", 2= "To a moderate extent", 3= "To a great extent", 4= "To a very great extent"). A higher total score indicate a more positive attitude towards adoption of evidence-based practice.
- Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, Year 1, Year 2 ]The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a brief screening questionnaire that is used by pediatricians and other health professionals to improve the recognition and treatment of psychosocial problems in children. We will utilize the 17-item version of the PSC which has been validated and used successfully to detect youth with psychosocial impairment.91-93 The PSC-17 includes internalizing, externalizing, and attention problems subscales, is available in Spanish and English, and has published clinical cut points. The PSC-17 consists of 17 items that are rated as "Never," "Sometimes, " or "Often" present. A value of 0 is assigned to "Never", 1 to "Sometimes," and 2 to "Often". The total score is calculated by adding together the score for each of the 17 items. A PSC-17 score of 15 or higher suggests the presence of significant behavioral or emotional problems.
- TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC-D4) scale [ Time Frame: Baseline, An average of 1 year, An average of 2 year ]The Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC-D4) scale is a widely used and validated self-administered measure of staff needs, motivational factors, program resources, and organizational climate that is completed by program staff. Part A of the scale has 33 items; part B has 31 items; part C has 31 items, and part D has 30 items. Each item is rated 1-5 (1= Disagree strongly, 2= Disagree, 3= Uncertain, 4= Agree, 5= Agree strongly). The average score is calculated for each part of the scale and compared to the national averages to assess the organization's readiness for change.
- Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, Year 1, Year 2 ]The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) is a well-validated self-report questionnaire that assesses three domains of negative affect: depression, anxiety, and stress. The DASS-21 is widely used in both research and clinical settings and has demonstrated very strong psychometrics properties. The questionnaire includes 21 items that are rated on a scale of 0-3 (0= "Did not apply to me at all", 1= "Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time", 2= "Applied to me to a considerable degree or a good part of time", 3= "Applied to me very much or most of the time"). Scores for depression, anxiety and stress are calculated by summing the scores for the relevant items. Scores are multiplied by 2 to calculate the final score. In each domain, scores indicate mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression anxiety or stress.
- Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 12 weeks ]The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) is a well-studied measure of patients' perceptions of the value of services received; it has a high internal consistency (α=0.83-0.93) and correlates with service use, symptom improvement, and other measures of global satisfaction. The questionnaire includes 8 items that are rated on a scale of 1-4 (1= "Poor", 2= "Fair", 3= "Good", 4= "Excellent"). Higher scores indicate more satisfaction with the program.
- Attendance and homework compliance log [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 12 weeks ]Therapists and RAs will keep systematic logs monitoring patient attendance/module completion and homework compliance. Attendance (number of sessions attended/modules completed), number of missed/rescheduled sessions/incomplete modules, number of sessions ended early, homework compliance.
- Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks ]The Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale (BTPS) is a parent-report measure of perceived barriers to treatment participation. The BTPS has demonstrated highly favorable psychometric properties, and assesses stressors and obstacles that compete with treatment (e.g., transportation, scheduling) and treatment demands issues (e.g., uncomfortable treatment setting). The scale has 38 items that are rated as "totally disagree," "somewhat agree," "neutral," "somewhat agree," or "totally agree". Barriers associated with treatment participation can help identify cases at risk of missing sessions and suggest targets for intervention to improve retention of families in treatment.
- Technological Ease and Computer-based Habits Inventory (TECHI) [ Time Frame: Baseline ]The Technological Ease and Computer-based Habits Inventory (TECHI) is a self-report that assesses the frequency and facility with which one uses technology in their daily life, as well as the extent to which they perceive themselves as equipped to attend to technology-based matters. The questionnaire includes 20 items that are rated on a 0-5 scale with 0 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree. Elevated scores on the TECHI reflect regular use of technology in one's daily life, a high degree of perceived technological literacy, and great overall comfort with technology. In contrast, low scores on the TECHI reflect minimal use of technology in one's daily life, a low degree of perceived technological literacy, and limited overall comfort with technology.
- Beliefs About Child Anxiety [ Time Frame: Baseline, 12 weeks ]The Beliefs About Child Anxiety questionnaire assesses ones attitudes about the causes, consequences, and nature of anxiety in youth, as well as maintaining factors and optimal treatment for youth anxiety. Scores reflect how prevalent respondents believe anxiety to be in children, the extent to which respondents believe anxiety to be the result of biological versus environmental factors, the extent to which respondents believe child anxiety can have negative consequences, the extent to which respondents believe child anxiety is externally observable, and the intervention strategies that respondents believe best treat child anxiety. The questionnaire consists of 17 items that are rated on a scale of 1-5 as "Complete untrue," "Somewhat untrue," "Somewhat true," "Completely true," or "Unsure/Not applicable".
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03707158
|United States, Florida|
|Nicklaus Children's Hospital|
|Miami, Florida, United States, 33155|
|Florida International University|
|Miami, Florida, United States, 33199|
|United States, Maryland|
|Dundalk Pediatric Associates|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21222|
|Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center|
|Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21224|
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Massachusetts General Hospital|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114|
|Boston Medical Center|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118|
|South Boston Community Health Center|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02127|
|United States, Washington|
|Harborview Medical Center|
|Seattle, Washington, United States, 98104|
|Seattle Children's Hospital|
|Seattle, Washington, United States, 98105|
|Swedish Medical Center|
|Seattle, Washington, United States, 98122|
|Principal Investigator:||Christina Borba, PhD, MPH||Boston Medical Center|
|Principal Investigator:||Donna Pincus, PhD||Boston University|
|Study Director:||Jonathan Comer, PhD||Florida International University|
|Study Director:||Michelle V Porche, EdD||Boston University|