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Brain Mechanisms in Young Adults (MHP)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03606473
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : July 30, 2018
Last Update Posted : July 30, 2019
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gale Richardson, University of Pittsburgh

Brief Summary:
The goal of this study is to use [C-11]NPA and amphetamine (oral, 0.5 mg/kg) to measure striatal dopamine transmission in prenatal cocaine exposed subjects (PCE) and comparison subjects (COMP)

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cocaine-Related Disorders Drug: d-amphetamine Radiation: [C-11]NPA Early Phase 1

Detailed Description:

Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has consistently been associated with behavioral deficits through childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood in our ongoing study (PRO15080516 - Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Use: 25-Year Follow-Up). Further, 21-year-olds with PCE in our study were twice as likely to have been arrested as non-exposed offspring, were more likely to be diagnosed with Conduct Disorder, had higher disinhibition scores, were significantly more likely to use alcohol and marijuana earlier, and to have earlier sexual intercourse. The effects of PCE on the developing nervous system may cause changes in brain function that underlie these behavioral outcomes.

This study seeks to examine dopamine (DA) transmission in vivo, using positron emission tomography (PET) with [C-11]NPA, in striatal regions of interest in subjects who have a history of exposure to prenatal cocaine (PCE). We hypothesize that PCE is associated with increases in dopamine in the striatum relative to COMP. This may explain the impulsivity and high risk behaviors in PCE subjects

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 30 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description: [C-11]NPA d-amphetamine
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Exploration of Mechanisms of Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Young Adults
Actual Study Start Date : January 24, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : January 1, 2022
Estimated Study Completion Date : January 1, 2022

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Prenatal cocaine exposed subjects
[C-11]NPA PET at baseline and post d-amphetamine
Drug: d-amphetamine
is used to stimulate dopamine release in the brain

Radiation: [C-11]NPA
PET radiotracer

Experimental: Comparison subjects
[C-11]NPA PET at baseline and post d-amphetamine
Drug: d-amphetamine
is used to stimulate dopamine release in the brain

Radiation: [C-11]NPA
PET radiotracer

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percent change in Binding potential (BPnd) [ Time Frame: Baseline BPnd (time 0) and Post-amphetamine BPnd (time 3 hours ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   25 Years to 30 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

All potential subjects are current participants in the larger parent study entitled "Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: 25-Year Follow-Up", IRB PRO15080516. Participants are between 25 and 30 years of age.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Prenatal cocaine exposed subjects (PCE): Offspring exposed to prenatal cocaine (concurrent exposure to prenatal alcohol and tobacco are not exclusionary) as determined by detailed interviewing during pregnancy
  • Comparison group (COMP): Offspring NOT exposed to prenatal cocaine (exposure to prenatal alcohol and tobacco are not exclusionary) as determined by detailed interviewing during pregnancy.

Exclusion criteria for both PCE and COMP groups:

  • No current mania or psychosis based on current mental status exam and SCID-IV modules A (pages A18-A37) and B (pages B1-B8);
  • No current cocaine, heroin, opioid, methadone, benzodiazepine, methamphetamine use (negative urine drug screen at both day of screening and the day of PET scan);
  • No current use of cannabis (a negative urine drug screen on day of PET scan; Note: a positive cannabis urine on the day of screening will not be exclusionary because cannabis tends to be used for recreation; and it takes a long time for it turn negative because it is released from fat cells in body long after subject has quit; and it has been shown to not impact amphetamine-induced dopamine release in prior studies);
  • Not currently taking prescription or over the counter medications that can alter monoamine transmission in the brain or interact with the d-amphetamine challenge or alter amphetamine concentrations (major CYP2D6 inhibitors such as fluoxetine, thioridazine, terbinafine etc., as well as pseudo-ephedrine, atomoxetine, SSRIs, etc.);
  • No use of acidifying (fruit juice; beverages; ascorbic acid) and alkalinizing agents (such as sodium bicarbonate) that alter amphetamine concentrations at least 12 hrs before PET scan day;
  • No current or past severe medical or neurological illnesses such as seizure disorders, head injury with prolonged loss of consciousness, hypertension, prior MI, CAD etc., (determined by physician investigator's elicited medical history, physical exam, review of labs, and EKG results);
  • Not currently pregnant (serum pregnancy test at screening) or breastfeeding;
  • No history of radioactivity exposure via prior nuclear medicine studies or occupational exposure in past 12 months;
  • No metallic objects in the body that are contraindicated for MRI;
  • SBP > 135, DBP > 85, and/or HR ≤ 50 or ≥ 100 (documented before the PET scans; Note: it is not unusual to have to repeat screening vital signs in subjects' because some subjects tend to have white coat syndrome and present with elevated vitals at screening, which later normalizes);
  • No first-degree relative with an MI or stroke or TIA prior to 50 years of age;
  • No first-degree relative with psychosis or mania.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03606473

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Contact: Rajesh Narendran, MD 4126475176
Contact: Gale Richardson, PhD 412-681-3482

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United States, Pennsylvania
University of Pittsburgh Recruiting
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15213
Sponsors and Collaborators
Gale Richardson
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

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Responsible Party: Gale Richardson, Associate Professor, University of Pittsburgh Identifier: NCT03606473    
Other Study ID Numbers: PRO17080203
First Posted: July 30, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 30, 2019
Last Verified: July 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
Keywords provided by Gale Richardson, University of Pittsburgh:
prenatal exposure
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Cocaine-Related Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Anesthetics, Local
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Dopamine Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Autonomic Agents
Adrenergic Agents
Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors